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Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 31
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Article
Noble B. H. Post-Communist Economies. 2017. Vol. 29. No. 4. P. 505-522.

Do budget bills change during review in the Russian State Duma? If so, by how much and why? Portrayals of the contemporary Federal Assembly as a ‘rubber stamp’ parliament would suggest that budget initiatives undergo no amendment during the formal period of legislative review. There is, however, evidence of bill change. The article’s primary goal is to present this surprising evidence, focusing on changes to spending figures in the 2002–2016 budget bills. The article also discusses why such changes are made, assessing hypotheses concerning legislator influence, technical updating and intra-executive conflict.

Added: Nov 7, 2018
Article
Makarov A. Post-Communist Economies. 2019.

This article analyses antitrust enforcement practice in Russian courts in the area of competition-restricting agreements. The analysis is based on the court decision database of litigations with the Russian competition authority (the Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS)). In the database litigations that officially started in the period 2008–2012 were included. Final court decisions were evaluated, taking into account litigation duration (sometimes up to 3 years). The database contains 400 cases, including 236 horizontal agreements and 164 other agreements (mostly vertical agreements). Based on the evidence of this database, important features and problems of the interpretation and implementation of competition law in Russia and priority areas of enforcement were identified. Antitrust policy was analysed taking into account the risks of type 1 and type 2 errors, including the problem of flexibility of prohibitions (per se vs Rule of reason (ROR) approaches), standards of proof and the problem of consistency of enforcement.

Added: Jan 18, 2019
Article
Yakovlev A. A., Avdasheva S. B. Post-Communist Economies. 2000. Vol. 12. No. 3. P. 165-185.
Added: Dec 14, 2009
Article
Yakovlev A. A. Post-Communist Economies. 2000. Vol. 12. No. 3. P. 279-291.
Added: Dec 14, 2009
Article
Gurkov I. B. Post-Communist Economies. 2004. No. 5.
Added: Nov 27, 2008
Article
Avdasheva S. B. Post-Communist Economies. 2007. Vol. 19. No. 1. P. 17-33.
Added: Dec 24, 2008
Article
Demidova O., Signorelli M. Post-Communist Economies. 2012. Vol. 24. No. 2. P. 191-217.

In spite of a growing body of literature investigating the determinants of youth unemployment, studies at sub-national level are still scarce, especially for Russian regions. This article is an innovative attempt to analyse econometrically the key factors affecting the youth unemployment rate and the ratio between youth and total unemployment rates for 75 Russian regions in 2000–09. The existing literature on regional labour market performance and dynamics suggested the use of a large set of explanatory variables (with indicators of the level of economic development, the demographic situation and migration processes, and the export–import levels) in a GMM panel data analysis, taking into account both spatial correlation and endogeneity problems. Although we were searching for structural determinants, we also investigated the effect of the 2008–09 financial crisis. The econometric results, presented and discussed using several models, have key policy implications for both national and regional levels of government.

Added: Sep 3, 2012
Article
Golikova V., Gonchar K. R., Kuznetsov B. Post-Communist Economies. 2012. Vol. 24. No. 2. P. 277-289.

This article studies the relationship between exporting and past productivity at the firm level. Panel data from two surveys of Russian manufacturing firms conducted in 2005 and 2009 are used. We analyse the difference between continuing and new exporters, and study how drivers to exporting differ if firms export to CIS or high-wage advanced countries. We find empirical evidence for the self-selection hypothesis: both continuing and new exporters are more productive and larger than non-exporters and export quitters. Path dependence in the nature of foreign trade ceased to exist: serving the markets of the former Soviet Union requires the same productivity advantage as exporting to the developed countries.

Added: Jun 1, 2012
Article
Dobrynskaya V. V., Turkisch E. Post-Communist Economies. 2010. Vol. 22. No. 3. P. 283-302.

Despite the impressive economic growth in Russia between 1999 and 2007, there is a fear that Russia may suffer the Dutch disease, which predicts that a country with large natural resource rents may experience a de-industrialisation and a lower long term economic growth. In this paper we study if there are any symptoms of the Dutch disease in Russia. Using a variety of Rosstat publications and the CHELEM database, we analyse the trends in production, wages and employment in the Russian manufacturing industries, and we study the behaviour of Russian imports and exports. We find that, while Russia exhibits some symptoms of the Dutch disease, e.g. the real appreciation of the rouble, the rise in real wages, the decrease in employment in manufacturing industries and the development of the services sector, the manufacturing production nonetheless increased, contradicting the theory of the Dutch disease. These trends can be explained by the gains in productivity and the recovery after the disorganisation in the 1990s, by new market opportunities for Russian products in the European Union and in CIS countries, by a growing Chinese demand for some products and by a booming internal market. Finally, investments in many manufacturing industries were largely encouraged, whereas those in the energy sector were strongly regulated, which contributed to the economic diversification.

Added: Oct 4, 2012
Article
Yakovlev A. A. Post-Communist Economies. 2004. Vol. 16. No. 5. P. 387-404.
Added: Nov 27, 2008
Article
Gurkov I. B. Post-Communist Economies. 2016. Vol. 28. No. 3. P. 353-372.

This paper reports the results of a survey of top executives at Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs). We examine the prevailing types of job contacts and the use of monetary and non-monetary benefits and compare such arrangements with those in locally owned industrial companies. We also reveal differences in human resource management (HRM) policies based on the source of authority over HRM issues (global headquarters, regional headquarters, local groups of companies, etc.). These findings can be used to help predict the evolution of HRM policies in Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of MNCs during the anticipated period of economic recession in Russia.

Added: Jul 7, 2015
Article
Libman A., Obydenkova A. Post-Communist Economies. 2019.

Egalitarianism is one of the key elements of the communist ideology, yet some of the former communist countries are among the most unequal in the world in terms of income distribution. How does the communist legacy affect income inequality in the long run? The goal of this article is to investigate this question by looking at a sample of subnational regions of Russia. To be able to single out the mechanisms of the communist legacy effects more carefully, we look at a particular aspect of the communist legacy – the legacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). We demonstrate that the sub-national regions of Russia, which had higher CPSU membership rates in the past, are characterised by lower income inequality. This, however, appears to be unrelated to the governmental redistribution policies; we link lower inequality to the prevalence of informal networks.

Added: Jun 4, 2019
Article
Gurkov I. B. Post-Communist Economies. 2002. Vol. 14. No. 1. P. 137-144.
Added: Dec 14, 2009
Article
Gurkov I. B. Post-Communist Economies. 2011. Vol. 23. No. 4. P. 507-516.

This article reports the results of a further extension of a quasi-longitudinal survey

among top corporate executives in Russian industry, presenting a snapshot of current

innovation actions and innovation capabilities of Russian enterprises. Through

comparison of the responses from the 2004 and 2010 surveys, changes in the business

and management of Russian companies are examined. The perceived abilities to

perform particular stages of innovation projects have significantly increased and

Russian companies successfully use contractors for various types of innovation

activity. However, the intensity of innovations remains low and the resources that can

be utilised to create innovations at Russian CEOs’ disposal remain limited as few actual

innovation projects satisfy the criteria imposed by Russian owners to improve the

overall profitability of the firm. The owner’s criteria for evaluating innovation

effectiveness particularly impede radical product innovations and breakthrough

innovations in production technologies. The results of this study indicate that the

relationship between the perception of innovative capabilities by CEOs and the

intensity of innovations proved to be a valuable research construct and this suggests

that comparative study of innovation capabilities of firms in emerging and developed

economies would be a profitable extension of this research.

 

Added: Nov 23, 2012
Article
Gurkov I. B. Post-Communist Economies. 2006. Vol. 18. No. 3. P. 297-313.
This article reports the results of an extension of a quasi-longitudinal survey among top corporate executives in Russian industry, presenting a snapshot of current innovation actions and innovation capabilities of Russian enterprises. Through comparison between the situations in 2002 and 2004, changes in the business and management of Russian companies in recent years are examined. The intensity of innovation significantly increased in 2003–04, but the resources for innovation at Russian CEOs’ disposal became even more limited than before as the traditional lack of finance coincided with a growing shortage of qualified labour. Moreover, the intensity of past innovations has little impact on further successes as there is minimal accumulation of routines of innovative action within companies. Further accumulation of innovative capabilities by Russian industrial enterprises will be a rather slow and painful process. The successes in innovative development of some export-oriented ‘national champions’ will be limited by the inability of their local partners to adapt to new requirements. Locally-oriented companies with sufficient financing will be inclined towards adoption of the existing technological solutions implemented by turn-key operators. In both cases breakthrough innovations in production and management technologies will be rare and will not determine the overall picture. In this respect, the sus
Added: Aug 23, 2016
Article
Freinkman L., Yakovlev A. A. Post-Communist Economies. 2015. Vol. 27. No. 3. P. 354-369.

This article addresses sustainable institutional arrangements to support economy-wide improvements in the investment climate in the context of a middle-income economy. The recent experience of the Agency for Strategic Initiatives (ASI) in Russia provides a valuable example of establishing a new government agency to advance economic deregulation in an environment where the political appetite for reform is limited. In our view, ASI has been the most successful institutional innovation to emerge in Russia since the 2008–09 financial crisis. Rather than engage in the traditional tussle over budget funds and benefits, ASI's mandate has been to organise a strategic dialogue with the private sector and build consensus within the government. We consider ASI's institutional set-up in light of the good practice principles adopted under Russia's ‘new industrial policy’. Our findings suggest other middle-income economies may find ASI's experience applicable when designing institutions to support a deregulation reform agenda. While the crisis in Ukraine has triggered a fundamental shift in Russia's development path that is likely to make ASI's deregulation efforts largely irrelevant, the agency's practical experience remains pertinent to the broader discussion of institutional arrangements to promote deregulation. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Added: Jan 20, 2015
Article
Gurkov I. B. Post-Communist Economies. 2014. Vol. 26. No. 2. P. 220-240.

I report the results of observations of management practices in 20 Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of Western multinational corporations (MNCs). I argue that to counterbalance the higher country-specific risks associated with investing in Russia, MNCs impose on their Russian subsidiaries high demands for superior performance in terms of both technical and economic efficiency. My observations confirm that in most cases such demands are successfully met by the implementation of highly effective practices. Thus, I challenge several beliefs about industrial management in Russia, including the myths that Russian firms are hostile towards knowledge sharing and are wary of talent. 

Added: Dec 5, 2013
Article
Avdasheva S. B., Golovanova S. Post-Communist Economies. 2017. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 198-215.

This article considers the mutual influence of antitrust enforcement in petroleum product markets and competition legislation in Russia. An analysis of infringement decisions of the Russian competition authority allows us to understand the perceived goals of economic policy in this sector. The shift from antitrust investigations and infringement decisions to a very specific set of remedies is explained by the desire to maintain low retail prices under increasing concentration without price subsidisation and without promotion of the entry at the refining stage of the value chain. The article highlights the specific use of antitrust legislation to maintain low fuel prices and to support independent retailing companies. We also note the limitation this policy faces. The goals and effects of antitrust enforcement in the industry explain, in turn, the specific path of competition legislation development in Russia.

Added: Jan 27, 2017
Article
Iwasaki I., Mizobata S., Muravyev, A. Post-Communist Economies. 2018. Vol. 30. No. 3. P. 290-333.

This paper provides a meta-analysis of studies on the effect of ownership on the performance of Russian firms over 20 years of rapid institutional and economic changes. We review 29 studies extracted from the EconLit and Web of Science databases with a total of 877 relevant estimates. We find that the government negatively affects company performance regardless of its administrative level. In contrast, private ownership is positively associated with firm performance. However, the effect size and statistical significance are notably varied among different types of private ownership. While the effect of insider (employee and management) ownership is comparable to that of foreign investors, the effect of domestic outsider investors is considerably smaller. Our assessment of publication selection bias reveals that the existing literature does not contain genuine evidence for a series of ownership types and, therefore, some of the findings have certain limitations. © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Added: May 22, 2018
Article
Kurakin A. A., Visser O. Post-Communist Economies. 2017. Vol. 29. No. 2. P. 158-181.

Through a study of agricultural service cooperatives in Russia’s Belgorod region, this article addresses two gaps in the literature: first, the dearth of empirical studies on cooperatives in post-socialist Russia; second, the lack of attention to top-down cooperatives in the global literature, and the overly negative approach to the topic in the few extant studies. Whereas state attempts to establish agricultural cooperatives in Russia in a top-down fashion have largely failed, such cooperatives have sprung up widely in Belgorod. The article investigates: (1) what influence the (regional) state exerts on the cooperatives, and how that affects their daily functioning and viability; and (2) to what extent such top-down cooperatives might evolve into less state-led forms, such as classic member-driven or business-like cooperatives.

Added: Feb 16, 2017
Article
Yakovlev A. A., Avraamova E. Post-Communist Economies. 2008. Vol. 20. No. 3. P. 263-286.
Added: Oct 14, 2012
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