Data from a field survey of the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in the Sanriku area of Japan is used to plot the distribution function of runup heights along the coast. It is shown that the distribution function can be approximated by a theoretical log-normal curve. The characteristics of the distribution functions of the 2011 event are compared with data from two previous catastrophic tsunamis (1896 and 1933) that occurred in almost the same region. The number of observations during the last tsunami is very large, which provides an opportunity to revise the conception of the distribution of tsunami wave heights and the relationship between statistical characteristics and the number of observed runup heights suggested by Kajiura (1983) based on a small amount of data on previous tsunamis. The distribution function of the 2011 event demonstrates the sensitivity to the number of measurements (many of them cannot be considered independent measurements) and can be used to determine the characteristic scale of the coast, which corresponds to the statistical independence of observed wave heights.
The generation of huge amplitude internal waves by the barotropic tide in the Barents Sea at high latitudes is examined using the numerical model of the Euler 2D equations for incompressible stratified fluid. The considered area is located between the Spitsbergen (Svalbard) Island and the Franz-VictoriaTrough as cross-section of 350 km length. There are two underwater hills of heights about 100 - 150 m on the background depth about 300 m. It is shown that intensive nonlinear internal waves with amplitudes up to 50 m and lengths about 6-12 km are generated in this zone. The total height of such waves is huge and they must be considered as a significant factor of the environment in this basin.
The run-up of random long-wave ensemble (swell, storm surge, and tsunami) on the constant-slope beach is studied in the framework of the nonlinear shallow-water theory in the approximation of non-breaking waves. If the incident wave approaches the shore from the deepest water, run-up characteristics can be found in two stages: in the first stage, linear equations are solved and the wave characteristics at the fixed (undisturbed) shoreline are found, and in the second stage the nonlinear dynamics of the moving shoreline is studied by means of the Riemann (nonlinear) transformation of linear solutions. In this paper, detailed results are obtained for quasi-harmonic (narrow-band) waves with random amplitude and phase. It is shown that the probabilistic characteristics of the run-up extremes can be found from the linear theory, while the same ones of the moving shoreline are from the nonlinear theory. The role of wave-breaking due to large-amplitude outliers is discussed, so that it becomes necessary to consider wave ensembles with non-Gaussian statistics within the framework of the analytical theory of nonbreaking waves. The basic formulas for calculating the probabilistic characteristics of the moving shoreline and its velocity through the incident wave characteristics are given. They can be used for estimates of the flooding zone characteristics in marine natural hazards.
Run-up of long waves on a beach consisting of three pieces of constant but different slopes is studied. Linear shallow-water theory is used for incoming impulse evolution, and nonlinear corrections are obtained for the run-up stage. It is demonstrated that bottom profile influences the run-up characteristics and can lead to resonance effects: increase of wave height, particle velocity, and number of oscillations. Simple parameterization of tsunami source through an earthquake magnitude is used to calculate the run-up height versus earthquake magnitude. It is shown that resonance effects lead to the sufficient increase of run-up heights for the weakest earthquakes, and a tsunami wave does not break on chosen bottom relief if the earthquake magnitude does not exceed 7.8.