The article examines the evolution of Russia’s soft power strategy over the past twenty years. The author analyzes the goals the Russian leadership set when starting this work, and shows that those goals were not limited to improving the Russian image on the world stage. The following periodization of Russia’s soft power evolution is proposed: the rise (2000-2007/2008), institutionalization (2007/2008-2013/2014), and tightening (2013/2014- till present). The article explores how Russian soft power changed during these periods: what tools were used, what role formal and informal institutions played, and what ideas and values were used as a foreign policy narrative. The analysis of the evolution of the Russian strategy allows us to correlate different stages of its development with Joseph Nye’s concept, as well as to show the intermediate and final results of its implementation.
COVID-19 made it possible to ask questions not only of the current efficiency of states in a crisis situation, but also of deeper, philosophical, even existential problems. The pandemic has been called the “perfect storm,” but there are likely to be many more “storms” of all kinds in the coming years. What is the "East Asian crisis" and what can we expect in the future?
Government of India, lead by Bhataria Djanata, sets grand tasks on modernization of the country while on a race to become 3rd economy of the world. This requires mobilization of the whole Indian society. National unity is vital for successful realization of such tasks. To create national unity power elite, attempt various control methods such as historical politics and modification of historical memory. The government attempts to reinforce mobilization of Indian society through new historical grounding, using Hindutva as a new ideology. A new official version of the past is being formed, and attempts are being made to make it stick through the educational system. History and historical mythology are actively used for dealing with current political problems. Historical politics, performed by BDP, is directed to fix new heroes and leaders of the nation, as well as new mythology in the public consciousness. Mass Media criticizes traditional leaders a specially heads of INС. Colossal monuments are being built across the country devoted to new leaders and mythological heroes. Construction of historical memory is widely applied to resolve domestic and international policy tasks. History and historical memory of the society undergoes transformation and becomes an arena for fighting with political enemy.
The EU has established its political priority for the future. Climate agenda is not only becoming the axis of internal and external EU policy - Europe is resolute to make it the central motif of the world economic development
During the last decade the rivalry between two regional actors Iran and Saudi Arabia not only shapes main political agenda in the Middle East but generates opposing points of view in the analytical and scientific communities. A number of figures among political elites backed by their like-minded experts seriously predict the possibility of direct armed clash between the two regional giants, others see it as the perpetual conflict between two major currents in Islam, namely Shia and Sunni communities, without possibility of resolution because of reconcilable nature of contradictions. The paper represents authors’ arguments pertaining the real origins of the conflict between Tehran and Al-Riyadh, factors influencing their powers and handicaps and different theatres where the confrontations are carried out as well as the probable consequences of this “Cold War” of the Middle East.
The growing popularity of populist movements as a result of economic turmoil is a matter of concern for the expert and political community. The financial crisis of 2008 and its impact on events in the Eurozone confirm the sad experience of the 1930s. In times of crisis, when solid political leadership is needed, the polarization of parliamentary systems complicates the way out of turbulence, reduces the chances for deep reforms and leads to an increase in conflict in the political system.
The year 2020 and the drastic increase of demand for digitalized informational technologies demonstrated that behind every positive aspect of development of contemporary information society we can find also negative aspects.