The paper presents analysis of a new kind of educational courses based on multidisciplinary approach. The course synthesizes the methodologies and advances of regional studies and regional geography, cultural and cross-cultural studies and communication, oriental studies, civilization studies, second language acquisition and second language teaching. The course is a part of a wider language program elaborated and implemented at NRU HSE (Saint Petersburg) and bases essentially on the inclusive strategies of Arab countries study, primarily language learning techniques (Arabic). It requires preliminary commandment of elementary course of Arabic. This study aims to analyze a year’s experience of constructing the Arab countries studies course and its teaching process, and to evaluate the merits and demerits of its aspects, taking into account the peculiarities of the academic activity, language skills, basic dictionary, and comparative analysis of several similar courses.
The paper presents an analysis of the sources on the medieval history of the Maghrib in an attempt to identify the origin of the Berber tribal confederation of Ṣanhāja. The directions of research include the analysis of territories presumably occupied by the branches of this tribal confederation, in addition to the migration routes of the Yemeni region, central Sahara and the Maghreb; history of the Berbers mainly based on the texts of Ibn Khaldūn and his description and the genealogical tree of the Berber tribes and families. Furthermore, to recreate a more complete picture of the mixture of peoples we should take into account the Arab and the Vandals demographic contribution. Yemenis have played its role in the Maghreb, but the real Arabization took place not earlier than in 11th century, so the question is in the earlier relationships between Arab tribes. On the other hand, there is a demographic contribution that is systematically underestimated in the Maghrib, i.e. that of the slaves of sub-Saharan origin that supposedly had a much greater impact. Various social and political conditions in the Middle East and North Africa as well as the evolution of Islamic written tradition in Arabic during the early medieval period account for the multiplicity and heterogeneity of data on the Berbers in Arab historical works. Thus, an accurate and consistent study of all the available sources is highly desirable. Correlation of medieval and modern regions, different spelling of toponyms and tribal names proper to authors of that period, different approaches to the perception of historical process, not to speak about a possibility of falsifications make it complicated to examine the issue. The difficulty also lies in the fact that some sources provide contradictory information that makes us doubt in their veracity. Therefore, the topic certainly deserves a detailed study.
This article deals with the practice of khulil divination in Mongolia, while introducing a Mongolian text devoted to this form of divination. Results. The divination practice goes back to the oldest Chinese source on divination Yijing (I Ching, Book of Changes, about the seventh century BC). Divination is carried out with the help of the trigram, or the three dashes, which are the result of casting coins or of some other method. By way of introducing the literature on the subject, the present article presents the Russian translation of the manuscript MN 1145 originating from Ts. Damdinsuren museum in Ulaanbaatar.
The article examines the published excerpt from A History of Tsam in Mongolia, a historical work by the Abbot of Gandan Monastery (Ulaanbaatar) ka-chu Erdenipel (1877–1960) who was one of the last representatives of the classical Mongolian academic tradition with expertise in Buddhist literature and held the position of Gandan’s Abbot after the 1944 reinstatement of religious services. As compared to many other educated Buddhists of Mongolia, he is distinguished for written literacy in both Tibetan and Mongolian. Still, only few his works survived to the present day. E.g., he is known to have written Khor-Choijun (A History of Religion in Mongolia) but the work was never discovered, and only a Russian translation of part one is available nowadays. According to Ts. Damdinsuren’s diaries, historical works of the priest were kept by his student Dangaasuren who attempted to publish them. Acad. Ts. Damdinsuren’s House Museum (Ulaanbaatar) stores two Mongolian-language works by Erdenipel ― A History of Khambo Nomyn Khans of Ikh Khüree and A History of Tsam in Mongolia. The composition about Tsam is a manuscript written in ink and feather. Ts. Damdinsuren’s inscription says the text was composed in 1942. And the autograph may very possibly have been made by Erdenipel himself. It contains a number of marks and corrections that could have been made by the author only. A History of Tsam in Mongolia comprises a brief introduction and a list of Mongolian monasteries indicating whether and which specific kind of Tsam (dance) used to be arranged there. The introduction relates about origins of Tsam supposed to have developed from magic rites of Indian Yogâcâryas who made use of special garments and ritual objects during corresponding performances. Erdenipel concludes Tsam appeared in Tibet during the second (‘later’) dissemination of Buddhism, i.e. after the 11th century AD. Moreover, Tsam was initially performed by monks of the Red Hat sects, while the Yellow Hat Gelugpa introduced Tsam into its rites only under the 1st Panchen Lama Chӧkyi Gyaltsen in Tashilhunpo and Namgyal Monasteries in the late 16th – 17th centuries. After that Erdenipel starts explaining the meanings of Tsam moves supposed to suppress antireligious and anti-human demonic powers, and describes attributes of the mystery characters. Special attention is paid to Tsam characters, such as tarnichi who direct Tsam dancers (the so-called Black Hats), or tarnichi who suppress evil powers (masks of oxen and deer) and act as assistants to the Ruler of Hell Chӧejel, the dead in the form of skeletons, the merciful Hushan, White Old Man, acharyas and others.The most interesting part is a narrative about the dissemination of Tsam in Mongolia. According to Erdenipel, the beginnings of Tsam in Khalkha Mongolia were laid by the 2nd Khalkha Dzaya Pandita Lobsang Nyandag Geleg Namgyal in 1744, though there is no data about that Tsam. Still, concrete facts testify about a 1787 Tsam performance in Erdene Zuu Monastery where it was initiated by the famous Abbot Nomchi Tsorji Dagvadarj (1734–1803). The dance scheme followed the pattern of Namgyal Monastery (Lhasa) but was supplemented with Tsam characters of Sakya Monastery which significantly influenced the rituals in Erdene Zuu. The capital of Northern Mongolia ― Ikh Khüree ― first witnessed a Tsam mystery only in 1810.
The paper examines the development of Russia's customs policy in the Central Asian region in the mid-to-late 19th c. The main part of the paper is a publication of a staff report written by Vladimir P. Cherevansky, a Russian high-rank official to Turkestan, namely, Head of Chamber of Control, in the 1870s. As a member of Commission for Russian Trade in Central Asia he disagreed with his colleagues on customs evolution and expressed his opinion in the report addressed to Konstantin von Kaufman, the then Governor-General of Turkestan. Since the 18th c. Russia had implemented the most favorable treatment towards merchants from the Central Asian khanates (Bukhara, Khiva, Khoqand, etc.) but their monarchs never responded equally. In the 1850s – 1860s, the Russian Empire substantially widened its possessions in Central Asia, shifting its borders southward. It caused a necessity of closing customs stations on the former borders (in particular, in Orenburg region). However, imperial authorities did not agree on whether or not to establish new ones in the newly annexed Russian Turkestan. The problem of customs policy of the Russian Empire (Turkestan Governor-Generalship being its specific region) towards Central Asian Khanates has been studied in a number of works, but the published document was never analyzed properly, whereas its content and especially its author are of great importance to go deeply into that difficult situation in the Russian customs policy to Central Asia. V. P. Cherevansky’s report mirrored different opinions on customs policy and, in fact, the end of the era of free-trade in the Russian Empire in general, and its Central Asian trade specifically. The content of report was influenced by debates between central authorities on administration of Turkestan — the Ministry of Finance and the Military Ministry. Although V. P. Cherevansky and Kaufman represented, respectively, financial authorities and military circles, they were not in conflict, and the report is an evidence of their constructive and respectful relations. In fact, the author of the report, who ex officio had to support free-trade policy, manifested his adherence to protectionism and strict customs policy towards Central Asian khanates and potential competitors from British India. The publication of the report also gives more information on V. P. Cherevansky as such. He was not just an official of a high rank (not only to Turkestan but later in Moscow and St. Petersburg where he finished his career as senator and member of the State Council), but also an author of novels and historical essays. His literary talents can well be seen in the published report, its style and content. Still, first of all V. P. Cherevansky was a professional with expertise in Russian Central Asian affairs. That is why his arguments were kept in mind by both local Turkestanian rulers and central authorities. However, the process of establishment of the customs system in Russian Central Asia proved long-term. Only in the late 19th c. it was finally organized with the aid of Cherevansky’s proposals.
By the beginning of the 20th century, the Mongols had widely used texts on apotropaic magic in their daily life. Among them there are writings with pictures and descriptions of talismans aimed at averting diseases and mishaps, attracting wealth and good favour. All this sort of writings resembles heterogeneity of traditions. Goals. The paper aims at examining various types of ‘booklore’ talismans in magic practices of the Mongols. Results. Like other spheres of Mongolian culture those represent pre-Buddhist, Buddhist and Chinese layers. That was conditioned by the his-tory of the Mongols, their neighbourhood with civilizations they had been integrated with during the course of their existence. As for ‘booklore’ talismans, there are two groups of them: one includes pictures originated from Taoist talismans, the other includes Indian and Tibetan dharanis, texts and Buddhist symbols. They penetrated into the Mongolian culture in different periods and in differ-ent ways. Thus, usage of ‘booklore’ talismans by the Mongols resulted in complicated multi-layer complexes which assembled Hindu, Tibetan pre-Buddhist, Mongolized Buddhist and Chinese Taoist elements in different combinations. Conclusions. The work reveals several clusters of ‘booklore’ talismans once popular among the Mongols and originated from pre-Buddhist, Buddhist and Taoist beliefs.
Introduction. The article publishes and provides a historical legal analysis of one letter by Prince Uday, ruler of Khorchin Khoshun (Horqin Banner) in Inner Mongolia at the end of 19th – first quarter of 20th century, who sent it to Pyotr Stolypin, the Prime-Minister of the Russian Empire, in 1910. This letter is a part of a file kept in the Russian State Historical Archive (St. Petersburg, Russia) in original Mongolian as well as in its Russian translation. As is known, the document was not published before. Goals. The aim of research is to extract from the Uday’s note — the information on the international legal status of Inner Mongolia which is given from the local ruler’s point of view. Results. The results of the research confirm the value of the note as a source, although its author attempted to emphasize his own significance in the eyes of the Russian authorities. Coupled with materials of other contemporaries (Russian and Western diplomats, intelligence officers, missionaries, merchants and scientists) it allows to give an authentic view on the status of Inner Mongolia at the international scene at the edge of 19th – 20th centuries. The utmost interest should be paid to the dynamics of relations of rulers of Inner Mongolia with the Qing imperial authorities that initiated a forced colonization of Mongolian lands through resettlement of Chinese peasant colonists, changes in relations of Manchu administration and Mongol feudal lords with Russian regional authorities and merchants, as well as strengthening of the Japanese influence in the region.
The history of everyday life, intensively developed in European science since the second half of the last century, has not found a noticeable reflection in Mongolian studies, from time to time getting a place in the sphere of ethnological or source discourse. Meanwhile, this area of social history can help to take a fresh look at the many processes that took place in Mongolia. It covers all the cycles of everyday life of the Mongols ‒ economy, life rituals and seasonal rituals, daily religious practices, magical rituals associated with sacrifices, treatment of cattle, divination, etc. Many of such practices are reflected in written sources. One of such works is the text under the code Q 695 from the Manuscript Fund of the Institute of Oriental manuscripts of RAS in St. Petersburg. It is dedicated to omens and divination by omens. The work can be divided into several parts: omens on the behavior of animals: horses, cows, sheep; on a bird coming in the house; on the barking and howling of a dog; on the buzz of pots; on the deformity of animals; on the behavior of dogs, the appearance of a tornado, the gnashing of teeth. Obviously, this work is a collection of narratives from various sources. Much attention to the cattle breeding theme seems to be in favor of the Mongolian character of the monument. However, there are also stories that are not typical for nomadic life. There are signs of the use of Tibetan and Chinese materials. On this basis, we can say that this work has a heterogeneous character and is a compilation from different sources. As for the concepts of omens themselves, they obviously have a wider area of distribution than certain national borders and reflect the practices of protecting life in a wide area of Central Asia, Northern India and China.
Geography is an important element to monuments of epic nomadic folklore of the Oghuz Turks. The Book of Dede Qorqut (Kitab-i Dedem Korkut), a Turkic medieval written epic, is undoubtedly a most important early medieval source on social and cultural life of the Oghuz Turkic tribes. The epic generally rests on the border between oral and literary traditions — and between folk narratives and historical writings. The emergence of the twelve stories to have constituted The Book of Dede Korkut is customarily dated back to the 11th century but those were written down far later, approximately in the 15th century. The twelve songs-legends narrate about exploits of Oghuz heroes. The main plot scheme central to the stories is that of struggle between the Oghuz tribes and infidels, non-Muslims (kafir) in the lands of Asia Minor, as well as constant internecine strife among the Oghuzes themselves. The geography in the The Book of Dede Korkut combines two main stratums, namely: real geographical place names and toponyms mentioned in the epic, and the socalled ‘mythological’ geography and spatial orientation. The epical enemies of the Oghuzes in The Book of Dede Korkut are connected with some specific geographical realities — mainly in the South Caucasus and Eastern Anatolia — by some toponyms mentioned in the tales (a bulk of the latter being names of fortresses). An external enemy for the Oghuzes in The Book of Dede Korkut has specific (‘Tagavor of Trebizond’, ‘evil infidels of the Evnük’, etc.) and, at the same time, mythological features, thereby marking the boundary between the nomadic and neighboring sedentary worlds. Still, the second stratum of the geography in The Book of Dede Korkut has been less investigated. Those are traditional — for Turkic (and, in a less degree, Islamic) mythology — geographical images that exist along with the real ones and are embedded into the system of the existing geographical names (e. g., Mount Qaf). Along with a system of the Turkic archaic traditional spatial orientation (undoubtedly preserved by the Kitab-i Dedem Korkut to a certain extend), it reflects the nomadic worldview connected with Turkic mythology and some Islamic impact. Although the geography of The Book of Dede Korkut is a topic of separate research study, in this case, a clear localization of the epic characters illustrates the fact that a quite a number of the tales took their form and cyclization in the respective territories already.
In article the system of indicators of an estimation of use of social and economic potential of region, approaches to its forecasting and maintenance of unity of received estimations are considered.
The article examines the issues of inﬂuence of the environmental activity at the value on of the acquisition cost of necessary natural and energy resources for balanced development of socio-economic-ecological system, as well as in terms of economic damages.
This article analyzes the influence of economic processes on criminal law. Economic development leads to that legal entity becomes the main participant of the market relations. As a result, market economy gives legal entities more freedom and independence in decision-making process. The financial economic crisis which has entailed also social changes became the reason of introduction by companies of cost cutting measures which quite often border on crimes. Traditionally, Russian criminal law presumes that only individuals have criminal liability. That is why there are many disputes among scientists about how to solve some issues (for example, mental element of crime).