This article measures Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) in India using National Sample Survey (NSS) data on “Consumption Expenditure” for the period 2004–2005 and 2011–2012, adopting Alkire and Foster’s (2011, Journal of Public Economics, vol. 95, pp. 476–487) methodology. It considers three main indicators, namely standard of living, education and income at the level of households or persons. The results show that multidimensional poverty head count has declined from 62.2 per cent in 2004–2005 to 38.4 per cent in 2011–2012. However, separate rural and urban regional analysis clearly indicates a sharp decline in rural poverty compared to urban poverty reduction. Lack of education of the household members made the highest contribution to poverty, followed by income and standard of living in India. A state-level analysis shows that Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Arunachal Pradesh have a higher poverty head count ratio, while Kerala, Mizoram, Nagaland, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana have a lower poverty rate.