While understanding their positions on various ethical issues in the field of reproductive technologies, IVF patients form their own special language, not scientific, but rather vernacular, based on real experience. A group of women actively seeking procreation with modern biotechnologies remains somewhat conservative, focused on a traditional family. New concepts and terminology are particularly well-formed in their disputes over the use of reproductive donation. In general, what they articulate and advocate is consistent with concepts of bioethics that are also controversial – for some, the priority of genetic connectivity is unusually strong, while others deny its significance. The study bases on examining perceptions of reproductive donation by bioethics specialists presented in the literature and their comparison with the views of ART patients communicating on the Internet. The author uses qualitative discourse analysis and studies thematic discussions on the Probirka.ru website, which are devoted to the preferences of their participants in relation to reproductive donation, its acceptance or rejection. The study shows that patients’ positions are somewhat more extreme than the views of bioethics. For example, some participants practically deny the existence of genes, while others talk about the advantage of finding a child without using one’s own body. The author reveals different groups of patients, and more traditionally oriented women prefer to delegate the genetic part of parenthood to third parties and cannot refuse to bear pregnancy as they see it as a central part of female identity, while more modernized prefer to keep genetic connection if it is possible to refuse childbearing.
The research note focuses on the issues of eating behaviour of young people in Arkhangelsk. The authors analyze the dynamics of general indicators of morbidity and mortality from diseases of the digestive system in the regions of the Arctic zone and substantiate the relevance of nutrition studies in these regions. Based on the results of the survey conducted in 2018 at schools, colleges and universities in Arkhangelsk, the authors show that a significant part of the youth have irregular eating habits and characterise the structure of their own nutrition as unsatisfactory. University students show a greater commitment to balanced nutrition than college students, but it is college and university students that disregard frequency of nutrition, which can be a consequence of inadequate catering arrangement and its affordability at local schools.
The note is concerned with the social and economic consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic for the daily life of Russian, and especially Moscow, families, especially in association with the introduction of quarantine-like restrictions as of April 2020. These consequences relate to the organization of the daily work of parents and the study of children from one and the same limited space of home or flat, with a sudden sharp change in the routines of everyday life. Also, unexpected financial problems and restrictions were added in many families, due to the lack of the opportunity to work for those employed in the service sector, which constitutes a significant segment of the Moscow economy.
The article presents the author’s reflections on theories in general and demographic theories in particular. The epidemiological transition, i.e. periodization of changes in the structure of causes of death, proposed by A.R. Omran in 1971 and later raised to the rank of theory, is taken as an example. The author points out the insufficiency of Omran’s concept to explain the contemporary mortality trends and suggests possible directions of theorizing that would enable correlating the new stage of life expectancy growth with the notion of “epidemiological transition”.
The article considers the level and dynamics of the level of poverty in the regions of Russia for 2000-2017, shows the sustainability of regional differentiation, despite the changes in the distribution of regions by the level of poverty. Regions with different rates of poverty reduction in the period of economic growth and the factors that accelerated this process are allocated. The weak impact of the two recent crises on the dynamics of poverty in the regions with different dynamics of income is revealed. The influence of demographic (child burden) and income factors (income level and income inequality), the cost of living in regions and the level of urbanization on regional poverty indicators is considered. The change of influence of different factors of poverty in the early 2000s and in 2017 is shown. An analysis of changes in the regional picture of poverty in transition from absolute to relative criteria of its measurement is carried out.
The article analyzes indicators of intensity of migration growth of municipal formations of the rank of district or urban district with completely rural or predominantly rural population. Rural areas in the suburbs of regional capitals and intraregional periphery, as well as those located in the South, the Non-Chernozem region, the South of Siberia and the Far East, the territories of the Far North and its equivalent areas, are considered separately. Both general indicators of the intensity of migration population growth (decline) and by 5-year age groups are compared. The source was data on long-term migration for 2012-2016, published in the Indicators of Municipal Entities databases of Rosstat. The analysis showed that suburban/peripheral differences in the migration balance of rural areas are more pronounced than spatial-geographical (zonal). Age profiles of migratory growth (loss) by geographical zones are similar, but differ in intensity — in the north and east outflow is higher. Suburban and peripheral rural areas in terms of intensity of migration balance differ fundamentally: the most intense migratory growth in all ages except for the youngest is noted in the suburbs.
Global drama of pandemic has caused the deep reduction of consumption of wealthy strata, unemployment and isolation. Huge number of people around the Globe is facing the step back to basic needs by Maslow pyramid: physiological needs and security. Adaptation of people to the new situation goes difficult, while somewhat easier for employed in intellectual activities, primarily for university professors. The exit from recession is still far ahead, and it will depend on the certification of territories, and issue of trust for citizens to start going from their regions. Morals, literature, memories of survival will be close to models of those after the big wars.
The paper concerns systematic differences in the wages of women with children and childless women, or «motherhood penalty», in modern Russia. The study bases on the 23rd wave of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS HSE). The authors employ a two-step model, the first stage of which uses a binary logistic regression to measure the selectivity of maternity, while the second reveals the effect of maternity status on the average monthly salary of women, adjusting for the observed selectivity. The obtained estimates indicate an average motherhood penalty of approximately 4% with a significant differentiation by women’s education level. The authors conclude that high-educated women face 1,5 times higher penalty, and also receive it earlier: the difference in salaries of childless women and mothers with higher education appears after the first birth, and among women without higher education this phenomena is observed only after the second birth. In conclusion, the authors discuss the limitations of the presented analysis and indicate possible directions for future research on this topic.