This essay reviews the copious scholarship on nationality policies and interethnic relations in Russia that has been published in the West since the fall of the USSR.
This paper analyzes the governmental regulation of the rental housing market in the states that arose on the ruins of the Russian Empire during the Russian Civil war in 1918–1922. Geographically it covers the territories that were under control of the Province of the the Armed Forces of South Russia, Crimean Regional Government, Don Cossack Host, the Far Eastern Republic, the Provisional government of the Northern region, the Provisional government of Siberia, and Soviet Russia as well as national states, such as Azerbaijan, Armenia, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. It examines and compares three major tools of the restrictive housing policy: rent control, protection of tenants from eviction, and housing rationing. It shows an emergence, evolution, continuity of the housing legislation of these governments with respect to that of the All-Russian Provisional government and its relationship with the housing policies of Bolsheviks. Despite sometimes radically opposite ideological attitudes, different governments reacted in a similar way to the acute housing shortage by intervening into the housing market. Finally, government regulations of the rental housing market on the territory of the former Russian Empire is put into European context using the regulation intensity indices constructed by the author. In Russia, the governmental regulation of the housing market emerged somewhat later than in Europe in general. However, in Soviet Russia it turned into a permanent regulation and remained in force until the early 1990s, while many European countries already in the early 1920s began to deregulate.
First time in the historiography, this article explores the relations between NKVD’s filtration camps staff and free workers with the Red Army servicemen returned from the captivity and the encirclement. Considering the achievements and problems in the anthropology studies it analyzes the nature of they interactions and the external factors that had an influence on it: the independence of the bodies responsible for filtration from the camps administration, the ambivalence of the inmates status and the regime of they detainment, the ambiguity of propaganda background. The division on groups had an influence too: the camps administration allocated a part of inmates from the common masses, who could have estimated on a better attitude; the appearance in the camps the «collaborants» led both for the greater stigmatization and the growth of a trust to the former POWs. The most close contacts with the inmates had the private guards, who often had been recruited from the successfully passed the filtration inmates. The relations between them more often had not conflict, but a mutually beneficial way. It analyze shows the importance of the factors, that rare taking into account when describing the prison guards, which status is very close to the prisoners. The command staff in the filtration camps could have sympathized to the former POWs or openly hate them, which indicates that the personal factors had a great value. The directors and the common workers on the facilities could have considered the former POWs as the future colleagues and full-right citizens, but another one demonstrated a disregard and an aggression, acted against the fulfillment plans of production, what shows the strong influence of a propaganda. So, it couldn’t been identified the only one main factor which determined the attitudes to the filtration camp’s inmates. In the behavior of guards and workers in different situations could appear both the determination by the externals factors and the free will.