This essay reviews the copious scholarship on nationality policies and interethnic relations in Russia that has been published in the West since the fall of the USSR.
The article is based mostly on unpublished documents of archives. The aim of this article is to present the issues of special colonization of Northern region. Special colonization was carried out according to the request upon cheap work force - different categories of special contingent (special immigrants, deported peasants, prisoners, persons, exiled from the bigger cities due to the administrative reasons). Most part of the displaced persons, nations and social groups was transported through Arkhangelsk - the oldest port and important transport hub on the European North. Since 1929 Arkhangelsk was recognized as a centre of Northern region, which was in higher priority within industrialization due to large amounts of wood export operations. Most part of gold and currency acquired from the wood export was allocated to the industrialization. The deportation process, the everyday life and involvement of special colonists into the industry of Soviet European North during existence of Northern Region (1929-1936) are also presented in the article.
This paper analyzes the governmental regulation of the rental housing market in the states that arose on the ruins of the Russian Empire during the Russian Civil war in 1918–1922. Geographically it covers the territories that were under control of the Province of the the Armed Forces of South Russia, Crimean Regional Government, Don Cossack Host, the Far Eastern Republic, the Provisional government of the Northern region, the Provisional government of Siberia, and Soviet Russia as well as national states, such as Azerbaijan, Armenia, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. It examines and compares three major tools of the restrictive housing policy: rent control, protection of tenants from eviction, and housing rationing. It shows an emergence, evolution, continuity of the housing legislation of these governments with respect to that of the All-Russian Provisional government and its relationship with the housing policies of Bolsheviks. Despite sometimes radically opposite ideological attitudes, different governments reacted in a similar way to the acute housing shortage by intervening into the housing market. Finally, government regulations of the rental housing market on the territory of the former Russian Empire is put into European context using the regulation intensity indices constructed by the author. In Russia, the governmental regulation of the housing market emerged somewhat later than in Europe in general. However, in Soviet Russia it turned into a permanent regulation and remained in force until the early 1990s, while many European countries already in the early 1920s began to deregulate.
The Great Patriotic War became not only the most tragic event in modern Russian history, but also a test for the state system of the USSR, which underwent a number of changes after the outbreak of the war. Among other things, they also affected structures subordinate to the People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs (NKVD). In its structure were created irregular units which were designed to protect the Red Army's near rear and to maintain order in the frontline zone - the so-called fighter battalions. The article will explore the issues related to the formation and application of these compounds on one of the most difficult sections of the Soviet-German front - the Leningrad direction. In particular, the process of creating fighter battalions in relation to this region will be studied, the level of their material support will be revealed, it will be shown how these units were used in conditions of the German army’s rapid attack on Leningrad and how they were used somewhat later, already in the setting of the besieged city. The source base of the article will be composed of previously unpublished documents from the funds of the Central State Archive of Historical and Political Documents of the city of St. Petersburg and the State Archive of the Russian Federation. Their analysis will allow not only a comprehensive study of the above problems, but also to some extent come closer to the answer to one of the little-studied questions of the history of the Great Patriotic War - how the Soviet command used irregular military formations at the first stage of the war and what role they played in achieving the Victory.
First time in the historiography, this article explores the relations between NKVD’s filtration camps staff and free workers with the Red Army servicemen returned from the captivity and the encirclement. Considering the achievements and problems in the anthropology studies it analyzes the nature of they interactions and the external factors that had an influence on it: the independence of the bodies responsible for filtration from the camps administration, the ambivalence of the inmates status and the regime of they detainment, the ambiguity of propaganda background. The division on groups had an influence too: the camps administration allocated a part of inmates from the common masses, who could have estimated on a better attitude; the appearance in the camps the «collaborants» led both for the greater stigmatization and the growth of a trust to the former POWs. The most close contacts with the inmates had the private guards, who often had been recruited from the successfully passed the filtration inmates. The relations between them more often had not conflict, but a mutually beneficial way. It analyze shows the importance of the factors, that rare taking into account when describing the prison guards, which status is very close to the prisoners. The command staff in the filtration camps could have sympathized to the former POWs or openly hate them, which indicates that the personal factors had a great value. The directors and the common workers on the facilities could have considered the former POWs as the future colleagues and full-right citizens, but another one demonstrated a disregard and an aggression, acted against the fulfillment plans of production, what shows the strong influence of a propaganda. So, it couldn’t been identified the only one main factor which determined the attitudes to the filtration camp’s inmates. In the behavior of guards and workers in different situations could appear both the determination by the externals factors and the free will.
This article investigates responses of Soviet schoolchildren of middle and older ages towards the Spanish Civil War and the arrival of Republican children to the USSR in the second half of the 1930s. Interest in reactions of this age category is connected with the fact that soon after they would bear the brunt of sacrifices in the struggle with Nazi Germany and received the status of front-line generation. Emotionally perceived events in a distant country became the source of its ideas about the future total war of the USSR and an important frontier in psychological preparation for it. Despite the refusal of the country’s political leadership to foment a revolution in Spain, this idea was guiding for young Soviet citizens. The Republican struggle, meaningful as an outbreak of world revolution, gave rise to their various manifestations of solidarity, including the collection of funds, attempts of individual and group escapes to Spain, and the self-organization of paramilitary units to join international teams. In the light of the dramatic experience of the Spanish Republicans, the future of the communist project among Soviet youth was now linked only to the fierce war that the Soviet Union was to withstand with some not necessarily decisive support from the progressive world community.
The article analyzes contemporary Russian historiography on the evacuation of industries during the Great Patriotic War. Particular attention is paid to digital data cited by researchers about the number of industrial enterprises from different economic sectors evacuated into the rear as one of the most important characteristics of the USSR military economy. The absence of comprehensive work on the evacuation of material resources into the country's rear remains problematic. The article provides a comparison of central and regional studies of Siberia, the Volga region, and the Urals. The conclusion is drawn on the significant successes of regional historiography in studying a number of problems in organizing the relocation and placement of industrial enterprises in new places, commissioning, economic efficiency of evacuated industrial equipment, and consequences of evacuation for strengthening the Soviet rear. The points under consideration concern the main achievements and debatable issues in the study of industrial evacuation, as well as the characteristics of the prospects for this scientific problem studying. The necessity of intensifying research on such aspects. Among these aspects are the following: the influence of pre-war mobilization plans on the organization of evacuation during the war, identifying the share of equipment losses during evacuation and explanations for such losses, the creation and functioning of evacuation bases, the evacuation of design bureaus and their impact on modernization processes on evacuated factories, and the post-war fate of the evacuated equipment.