The primary aim of this research report is to analyse the dynamics and structure of the publications of Russian authors, as well as to define the place of Russian science in the global scientific process. Bibliometric analysis methods are the main methods for quantitative analysis of scientific cooperation, efficiency, and other aspects of scientific activity. The information base for this research includes materials from science citation databases containing bibliographic descriptions of the articles published in scientific journals (mainly written in English) in a significant number of fields of science. Various parameters (e.g. dynamics of the number of publications, the number of citation, the level of co-authorship, the scientific specialization index, etc.) at various levels of aggregation (e.g. individual researchers, research organizations, countries and regions of the world) can be calculated based on these data. The results of bibliometric studies can be used in a number of ways:
- analysis of latest trends in the development of various scientific fields;
- evaluation of the effectiveness of research organizations;
- overall assessment of the scientific potential of Russia (its strengths and weaknesses);
- identification the most productive scientists in various fields of science;
- drawing the international comparisons of publications;
- analysis of collaboration networks of scientific teams.
The paper analyses the basic indicators of the publication activity of scientists in Russia and the leading countries over the period between 2001 and 2011. Publication activity of Russian scientists is analysed in the context of specific areas of science. This allows the identification of areas of specialization of Russian publications. The paper also examines the dynamics of highly-cited publications and the indicators of the international scientific collaboration of Russian researchers. In this paper, materials of Web of Science database were used for analysis of publication activity.
We studied the cytotoxicity of acadesine (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside) for tumor and normal cells of various species and tissue origin. In tumor cells, acadesine triggered non-apoptotic death; the potency of the compound to normal cells was substantially lower. Acadesine was toxic for tumor cells with multidrug resistant phenotypes caused by the transmembrane transporter P-glycoprotein or lack of proapoptotic p53. Activity of adenosine receptors was required for acadesine-induced cell death, whereas functioning of AMP-dependent protein kinase was not required. A more pronounced cytotoxicity for tumor cells, as well as the non-canonical death mechanism(s), makes acadesine a promising candidate for antitumor therapy.
An efficient computational approach is developed to quantify the free energy of a spontaneous association of the α-helices of proteins in the membrane environment. The approach is based on the numerical decomposition of the free energy profiles of the transmembrane (TM) helices into components corresponding to protein-protein, protein-lipid, and protein-water interactions. The method was tested for the TM segments of human glycophorin A (GpA) and two mutant forms, Gly83Ala and Thr87Val. It was shown that lipids make a significant negative contribution to the free energy of dimerization, while amino acid residues forming the interface of the helix-helix contact may be unfavorable in terms of free energy. The detailed balance between different energy contributions is highly dependent on the amino acid sequence of the TM protein segment. The results show the dominant role of the environment in the interaction of membrane proteins that is changing our notion of the driving force behind the spontaneous association of TM α-helices. Adequate quantification of the contribution of the water-lipid environment thus becomes an extremely urgent task for a rational design of new molecules targeting bitopic membrane proteins, including receptor tyrosine kinases.