This article is based on the analysis of students’ records and reconstructs how Church Slavonic, Greek and Latin grammar were taught at Novgorod Bishop’s School during 20-30-s of the 18th century. The authors have concluded, that multilevel system was established at “Slavonic”, Greek and Latin schools of the Bishop’s School in Novgorod, as well as at civil schools, opened on the territory of Novgorod eparchy: from studying basics of the Book of Common Prayers, Psalter, reading, writing and abecedarium to grammar, rhetoric and poetics. Church Slavonic grammar was taught prior to studying Greek or Latin grammar, but there was no hierarchy between the latter — one could study Greek grammar after Latin grammar and vice versa. It took different students different amount of time to master grammar, that depended on their learning abilities and diligence as well as on their teacher’s desire to present the material during a shorter period of time. On average, according to the information from the records, the students spent one and a half year on studying Church Slavonic grammar, and no less than three years on Greek grammar.
The Spanish Kings’ Christmas messages are considered the main instrument of communication of the Head of State with his citizens. Although they do not have any legal status and belong to the realm of customs and traditions, these speeches are expected by the people, and analyzed in detail because they are one of the few occasions when the monarch addresses the Spanish people on television. This paper deals with the speeches delivered by Juan Carlos I and Felipe VI from 1975 to 2019, in order to highlight their significance in strengthening the image of the institution of the monarchy, and convincing people of the necessity for peaceful coexistence in Spain, a highly democratic country where the monarch is the symbol of its unity and permanence. Nevertheless, Felipe VI’s messages are more personal, emotional and appealing, in comparison with the messages of his predecessor as he tries to make a gentle change in the monarchy, bringing it a little closer to the people.
The article raises the problem of the Mayakovsky’s gestures of self-assertion. In the earliest his poems there is no Grand “I”, so characteristic for the poet and representing the main source of creative will. In the text representing the turning point in Mayakovsky’s creative activity — “A vy mogli by?” — development of the image, which demonstrates regeneration of the world, simultaneously models the very position of “I”.