In this article the issue of the creative activities of young artists from Russia and China representing the new generation of the 21st century is emphasized in historiography for the first time. The analysis is based on the material, produced during a collaborative project which began in 2015. The project in question features both cross-disciplinary and cross-cultural approaches, that are essential for liberal education. For the first time in world culture, a history of one cultural space is being formed. In this space a new generation, which emphasizes its own identity, is acting, while challenging, feeling and recognizing its own 21st century. A renowned Professor of Peking University and art historian Peng Feng, contributes to a dialogue between Russian and Chinese artists regarding the nature of the modern Chinese art. Refs 19.
Architectural Association in London was founded in 1847 by a group of young architects who tried to change the tradition of architectural education in the UK. One of the most exciting pages of it’s history deals with the period of 1960-1980-s, when Alvyn Boyarsky has become AA’ director and the school becomes a real experimental field of the post-reconstruction generation, bringing up today’s world architecture leaders. Architects graduated from the Association have become the true heroes of contemporary architecture. Their practice may appear to be very different, but they are all representatives of one school and, in some general way, one generation. The list of names, connected with AA is unbelievably representative: Ron Arad, Ben van Berkel, David Chipperfield, Nigel Coates, Peter Cook, Mark Fisher, Zaha Hadid, David Green, Nicholas Grimshaw, Steven Holl, Rem Koolhaas, Leon Krier, Daniel Libeskind, Richard Rogers, Patrik Schumacher, Bernard Tschumi, Elia Zenghelis. The new generation was inspirited with a special artistic sensibility to the historical urbancontext, architectural genealogy and the complexity of human everyday life in general. The number of questions raised up during that period is still related to the most urgent problems of contemporary urban development. The article is a study of AA’ educational methods and programs, focusing on the main research themes, best diploma studies, additional activities. Education for Boyarski was a way to create an environment for experimentation and critical thinkng, so he supported any student undertaking - from costumed carnivals and elephant riding to music records and student magazines. This was the reform carried out by Boyarski: he completely changed the structure of the studing process by proposing the "unit system" as the base model (which he himself called the "well-laid table"). The essay is devoted to the history of the London Architectural Association of the 1960s-1980s, the urban problems faced by the generation that succeeded the generation of the postwar Reconstruction, and the methods of teaching developed during these years under the leadership of Alvin Boyarski.
From the first centuries of the Common Era, portrait was one of the leading genres of traditional Chinese painting. The objective of this study is to provide an extended portrait typology and to explore the basics of portrait aesthetics in the light of the latest achievements in Oriental studies. The extensive typology of the Chinese portrait forms of the X-XIX centuries testifies to the pictorial tradition maturity. The portrayed were depicted standing, sitting and lying, appeared life-size or head-and-shoulders, and were pictured full-face or in three quarters and, sometimes, back views. The social portrait typology was composed of tomb portraits, lifetime ceremonial portraits, lifetime informal portraits, commemorative portraits, historical and didactic portraits, diplomatic portraits, compromising portraits, religious portraits, portraits of donators and self-portraits. The development of stylistics of all portrait types was based on three main principles of national aesthetics. The first principle borrowed from the xiangfa physiognomy, asserted a direct link among the structural features of the physical body, psyche and mental abilities of people, which together determined their destiny. The tradition of visual psychosemiotics did not allow the commissioner to demand that the artist change the appearance of the person being portrayed to any idealizing standards, as this was thought to result in personality substitution. The second principle was based on the concept of "body oneness" (yi ti) of the Universe, whereby each part of the human face was in energy resonance with various astronomical and landscape objects. In the portrait, a person was characterized simultaneously as part of the cosmos, society and race. The third principle concerned the spiritual content of the portrayed person’s image, denoted by the term shen. The analysis of occurrence of the term shen in treatises shows that what their authors meant by shen was a personified manifestation of the connection between the single and the Universal rather than the portrayed person’s individuality (a certain soul) and the sacral beginning (spirit).
The works of the well-known erudite and master of eccentric cursive writing Fu Shan (1607-1684) have been thoroughly studied in China, while there is little research on them in art history in the Western countries and they are barely known among Russian orientalists. Fu Shan used the legacy of ancient epigraphy to reform both cursive (caoshu) and non-cursive scripts (zhuanshu, lishu, kaishu). Fu Shan relied on the assumption that all the scripts have unified plastic principles. His expressive cursive writing has basic elements of non-cursive scripts, while his non-cursive writing has the dynamic potential of a cursive script. Fu Shan’s exceptional connoisseurship made him a forerunner of the archaizing trend in the “Stele School” (beixuepai). He was also famous for his eccentric experiments with the character forms and the composition of character columns which has become an important element of Chinese calligraphy in XX-XXI centuries. This article recounts the milestones of Fu Shan’s life, shows the trends of continuity in his works and their evolution. The quotations of Fu Shan and the most prominent examples of his works are used to study his artistic principles. This article explains Fu Shan’s “four norms, four taboos” (si nin si wu) that are connected with the specific aesthetics of mastery concealment and the principle of plastic dissonance (zhili). For Fu Shan, the lack of self-confident virtuosity (qiao) and the quality of being crude and ugly (zhuo) meant that a work of art reflected the natural order of Dao. The diversity of his artistic studies and the syncretic character of his worldview made it possible for Fu Shan to retain his artistic freedom while adhering to tradition. Due to the combination of connoisseurship and eccentric innovation, which is peculiar to the Chinese culture, Fu Shan’s art has preserved its integrity and the enduring value of his legacy.
The article is dedicated to the problem of communication between Soviet and British architects in the period of 1920–1930s, which is very poorly studied in Russian and British historiography. The subject is thoroughly considered in two ways simultaneously. The author examines the political and socio-economic circumstances of such business trips in England. The main focus is on the professional goals and objectives of these visits, and on the reception and interpretation of Soviet architectural and urban planning practices by British architects The second aspect to which attention is paid are the main points of the program for displaying Soviet architecture, which was organized by the host country. Since a number of visits to the USSR by foreign architects took place in the early 1930s, the nature of mutual interest in the creative experience of Soviet and English colleagues has been changing over the decades. The main objective of the work was an attempt to consider, to a first approximation, the initial stage of this relationship (late 1920s — 1930s) and the most important forms of communication between English and Soviet architects. The article analyses events organized by VOKS, Inturist, Soviet trade representatives, Society for Cultural Relations between the People of the British Commonwealth, and the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics. The work used materials from the Russian and British archives, including previously unpublished records of Berthold Lubetkin and Erno Goldfinger.