• A
  • A
  • A
  • ABC
  • ABC
  • ABC
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 7
Sort:
by name
by year
Article
Михайловский А. В. Философия науки и техники. 2018. Т. 23. № 1. С. 29-42.

While engineers play one of the main roles in the advanced industrial society, they also develop technologies and design our future. Yet, in contemporary philosophy, culture and engineering are usually discussed separately, engineering knowledge and education are usually contrasted with the socio-humanitarian knowledge. This can be dealt with using a “value-sensitive design” approach, which is explored through creativity, intentions and expectations. Therefore, this paper intends to overcome the opposition between technology and culture and provides a description of the engineer as an original technological “form of life”, not as a social and professional group. It first addresses E. Spranger’s idea of “forms of life”, which are a mode of conceiving a culture that arose at the turn of the 20th century in conjunction with phenomenology. A set of theoretical resources of sociological thought (H. Freyer) and German engineering philosophy of technology (F. Dessauer, M. Schröter, H. Hardensett) is further proposed to deal with the domination of economic rationality (or pseudo-economic pragmatism) and profile the type of engineer, which cannot be reduced to the “value-neutral” type of the “technician” or “technologist”. This paper focuses on the structure of the project activity as a particular modern “form of life“. It examines the type of engineer as homo creator, which is described as the dominant type in the advanced industrial society.

Although engineering activity produces material things or artefacts, still it has chiefly immaterial nature as far as includes projecting, planning, organizing and other intellectual activities. Investigation, development, production as integral parts of engeneering are always dependent on systems of market, political decision-making, cultural values, traditions and images of everyday life, i.e. incorporated within the life-world. In this regard, engineers don’t form the “technosphere“ but rather create guidelines for action by integrating concrete values of man’s life-world into technologies (for example, innovations and sustainable development). Integration of technology and culture proceeds not externally but within the project activity which provides an opportunity to implement the concrete technical form of life and transform life-worlds of contemporary industrial societies.

The principal hypothesis is that the activity of engineering, which produces technology is not a variation of the instrumental reason but the expression of the infinite creative freedom implemented in the European culture. It is pointed out that the compensative function of technology (Mangeltheorie) shall be called into question and replaced by the notion of technology as “optimation” (Optimierungstheorie). I claim that technology produces surplus possibilities which surpass all imagination. According to Dessauer, technology can be conceived real being from ideas and participation in divine creation (Weiterschöpfung). The engineering inventions and the technological transformation of the world make us aware of escalation, innovation and crossing of space and time borders which allow the technological spirit to unfold the perfect technological universe.

Added: Jun 1, 2018
Article
Князева Е. Н. Философия науки и техники. 2015. Т. 20. № 2. С. 50-69.

The phenomenon of innovative complexity, types of innovations, characteristic stages of the process of diffusion of innovations, causes of fails of innovative processes in social media are considered in the article from the standpoint of the science of systems. On this basis, some methodological conclusions concerning effective ways of organization of adaptive and network structures supporting innovations are drawn. Characteristic properties of adaptive network structures, such as active adaptation, ability to self-completing, self-scaling (fractality) of spatial and temporal organization, emergent nature are demonstrated. Special attention is paid to consideration of network structures in communication.

Added: Dec 31, 2015
Article
Куркина Е. С., Князева Е. Н. Философия науки и техники. 2017. Т. 22. № 2. С. 120-135.

Some non-trivial properties of network structures in social media, which are revealed on the basis of the methodology of network analysis, are considered in the article. It is shown, in particular, that nowadays the emphasis shifts from the study of social complexity to the study of social network structures. The evolutionary trend is the transition from hierarchies to networks, and the process of forming network structures is explored as a phenomenon of networkization. The processes of rapid growth of network structures and the risks of their destruction are essentially non-linear. Of great interest are also the small-world phenomenon and the strength of weak links in network structures.

Added: Jan 16, 2018
Article
Аронсон О. В., Аршинов В. И., Буданов В. Г. и др. Философия науки и техники. 2016. Т. 21. № 2. С. 149-181.

The round table rises important questions - the questions concerning developments of the conceptual apparatus which would provide constructive movement within the limits of a complexity paradigm. These problems concern the status of the such paradigm, how it is accepted or not accepted in natural-science and philosophical traditions, what influence it renders to express its specificity on description languages. Different aspects and ways of understanding of complexity are considered in a context of the conceptual strategy which is offered by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. During the discussion an attempt of rethinking the relation of methodology and ontology, parts and whole, a text and a context etc. is undertaken. Also the problem that draws attention of the participants of a round table is the conceptualization of the opposition “simple-complex”. Within the limits of the discussion on the dichotomy “simple-complex” possible approaches to complex thinking are considered to construct the concept “complex vision of the world”. In this aspect the construction ontology of nonclassical type, the ontology, which is based not on static vision of the world, not on identity, but on dynamics, on becoming, is discussed. The accent is done on dynamics and on removal of classical dichotomies, for example on removal of dichotomy “methodology-ontology”. This suggests a new postnonclassical ontology and special type of methodology. The special attention is given to the problem of observer, considering that the conceptual character “observer of complexity” is found almost in all later works of Deleuze. Thus the emphasis is made on a role of recursion and communications during such observation. In this context complexity is seen as a recursive process between integrity and partiality which basic premise is the idea of distinction. The observer of complexity is the observer creating distinctions, staying in the nonequilibrium, uncertain situation which is open for the future having in the past the set of causes and effects for retrospective explanations which however cannot serve as a support for the determined forecasts of the future events. Position, according to which it is necessary to refuse the position of the external observer, considering this or that state of affairs from outside, is put forward. Moreover, we have in mind postnonclassical complexity, but not difficult complex problems that we have to solve. And this fact can be grasped from a number of practices related primarily to innovation activities. Also the special attention is given to postnonclassical control strategy of complex systems which can be considered in terminology of Deleuze as movements from “virtual object” to “the virtual subject”. The considerable attention in performances is given to the status of truth in a paradigm of complexity (in perspective of philosophical strategy of Deleuze). At last, the considered theme is developed in a context of congruence of philosophies of Deleuze with philosophical and research strategy of Edgar Moraine (the author of the term “paradigm of complexity”) and also with the theory of autopoiesis offered by Francisco Varela and Humberto Maturana.

Some aspects of the phenomenon of complexity which are congruent to the conceptual constructions of Gilles Deleuze are considered in the presentation of Helena Knyazeva. Six such methodologically important aspects of the phenomenon of complexity are singled out by her. The round table rises important questions – the questions concerning developments of the conceptual apparatus which would provide constructive movement within the limits of a complexity paradigm. These problems concern the status of the such paradigm, how it is accepted or not accepted in natural-science and philosophical traditions, what influence it renders to express its specificity on description languages. Different aspects and ways of understanding of complexity are considered in a context of the conceptual strategy which is offered by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. During the discussion an attempt of rethinking the relation of methodology and ontology, parts and whole, a text and a context etc. is undertaken. Also the problem that draws attention of the participants of a round table is the conceptualization of the opposition “simple–complex”. Within the limits of the discussion on the dichotomy “simple–complex” possible approaches to complex thinking are considered to construct the concept “complex vision of the world”. In this aspect the construction ontology of nonclassical type, the ontology, which is based not on static vision of the world, not on identity, but on dynamics, on becoming, is discussed. The accent is done on dynamics and on removal of classical dichotomies, for example on removal of dichotomy “methodologyontology”. This suggests a new postnonclassical ontology and special type of methodology. The special attention is given to the problem of observer, considering that the conceptual character “observer of complexity” is found almost in all later works of Deleuze. Thus the emphasis is made on a role of recursion and communications during such observation. In this context, complexity is seen as a recursive process between integrity and partiality which basic premise is the idea of distinction. The observer of complexity is the observer creating distinctions, staying in the nonequilibrium, uncertain situation which is open for the future having in the past the set of causes and effects for retrospective explanations which however cannot serve as a support for the determined forecasts of the future events. Position, according to which it is necessary to refuse the position of the external observer, considering this or that state of affairs from outside, is put forward. Moreover, we have in mind postnonclassical complexity, but not difficult complex problems that we have to solve. And this fact can be grasped from a number of practices related primarily to innovation activities. Also the special attention is given to postnonclassical control strategy of complex systems which can be considered in terminology of Deleuze as movements from “virtual object” to “the virtual subject”. The considerable attention in performances is given to the status of truth in a paradigm of complexity (In perspective of philosophical strategy of Deleuze). At last, the considered theme is developed in a context of congruence of philosophies of Deleuze with philosophical and research strategy of Edgar Morin (the author of the term “paradigm of complexity”) and also with the theory of autopoiesis offered by Francisco Varela and Humberto Maturana.

Added: Dec 15, 2015
Article
Петрова Е. В. Философия науки и техники. 2017. Т. 22. № 1. С. 78-92.

In the analysis of the problem of human adaptation there are two closely related aspects - natural and social. The main methodological guideline of this work is to try a holistic consideration of the problem of human adaptation in the information environment with emphasizing (but not separating from each other) its natural and social aspects. All organisms on the planet are grouped into certain kinds of complexes - ecosystems. An ecosystem is a collection of living organisms in their relationship with environmental factors. The ecosystem the center of which is man becomes anthropo-ecosystem. One of the integral parts of any anthropo-ecosystem is its information field. The problem of the information field is one of the most important in the description of the dynamics and nature of anthropo-ecosystem. This is due to the fact that the basis anthropo-ecosystem is always a community of people, the existence of which is impossible without information and communication processes. In fact, the information environment is becoming a major habitat of modern man. Modern information environment can be considered as a collection of information conditions of human life (availability and quality of information resources, development of information infrastructure), as well as a set of economic and socio-cultural conditions of informatization processes. Changes to our life created by artificially created environment of information and communication technologies affect all its aspects: our minds and our world view, work and education, family and interpersonal, the economy and production. Consequently, the need to develop new mechanisms of adaptation to the changing environment is undeniable. The process of changing of information environment by humans, the construction of artificial information environment around them, and their change under the influence of the environment – the processes inextricably linked, closely intertwined and impossible without each other. Consideration of human beings as part of anthropo-ecosystem helps us better understand the need for human adaptation to the information environment. It would even be more correct to use the term "co-adaptation" here, since humanity and information environment throughout their evolution constantly mutually adapt, evolve, co-adapt. The ecosystem of the information society originally, like any other ecosystem, is built as part of the environment (in this case the information environment) and only then is integrated into the structure of the information society. Adaptation is not always a positive thing. When a person experiences a flow of information exceeding the limits of his or her adaptation mechanisms there is a possibility of failure of adaptive mechanisms and information stress. Analysis of changes in the human psyche, consciousness, and behavior immersed in the modern information environment, shows that the concept of "adaptation" and "maladjustment" dialectically interrelated, acquiring positive or negative direction depending on a variety of factors. A new form of pollution - information pollution - necessitates the creation of a new science - information ecology. Humanity must develop new adaptation mechanisms (or try to somehow modify existing ones), in order to successfully adapt to the new information environment. Moreover, this applies to both social and natural adaptation, because these processes are inextricably linked. The process of adaptation - a holistic process and the natural and social sides of it can be distinguished as its aspects, the relationship of which can be analyzed dialectically, but a clear separation and isolation of them is not possible or even needed.

Added: Aug 29, 2017
Article
Князева Е. Н. Философия науки и техники. 2018. Т. 23. № 2. С. 5-9.

The article shows how difficult is to resist the modern arguments of constructivism, defending realism. The onslaught of constructivism comes both from scientific theories and from the social and cultural practice. The most significant arguments in favor of constructivism are based on the Umwelt analysis coming from theoretical biology, and on enactivism as a popular conception in cognitive science. These two arguments turn out to be in a close conceptual bond. The development of modern information and computer technologies makes the position of classical realism increasingly vulnerable and requires its modification.

Added: Jan 23, 2019
Article
Карпенко И. А. Философия науки и техники. 2018. Т. 23. № 1. С. 54-67.

The article is devoted to the philosophical interpretation of the several approaches to the creation of a quantum theory of gravity. The analysis of the key aspects of the General theory of relativity and the Standard Model, the clarification of the relevant concepts contents (gravity, particle, field, space, etc.) are conducted for this purpose. We establish the causes and origins of the creation of the quantum theory of gravity problematical character, give the interpretation of the existing problems. Therefore, the article shows a fundamental difference between realities described by the two leading modern physical theories.

Classical science is based on common sense and intuitive representability, while the microcosm cannot be directly observed and therefore is out of the representable sphere. This is probably the part of the reason for the incompatibility of the equations of quantum theory and general relativity. On the basis of the philosophical analysis of the results of some modern theoretical physics concepts, the article presents the direction of creation a quantum theory of gravity. This direction appears to be the combination of the consequences of several concepts of the string theory and the holographic principle to the properties of the quantum-mechanical entanglement. The entanglement is most likely dually connected with gravity, and the non-locality is a characteristic of the multidimensional space.

The problem lies in the fact that this result is not literally applicable to our reality and describes the possible worlds (in the context of the diversity of the laws of physics). The article establishes that, despite the mentioned, the theory remains scientific and still appears to be a good approximation to the observed physical reality.

Added: Oct 7, 2017