We define the coupled modified KP hierarchy and its dispersionless limit. This integrable hierarchy is a generalization of the ''half'' of the Toda lattice hierarchy as well as an extension of the mKP hierarchy. The solutions are parametrized by a fibered flag manifold. The dispersionless counterpart interpolates several versions of dispersionless mKP hierarchy.
We show that N-variable reduction of the dispersionless BKP hierarchy is described by a Loewner type equation for the quadrant.
P. Berglund, T. Hübsch, and M. Henningson proposed a method to construct mirror symmetric Calabi–Yau manifolds. They considered a pair consisting of an invertible polynomial and of a finite (abelian) group of its diagonal symmetries together with a dual pair. A. Takahashi suggested a method to generalize this construction to symmetry groups generated by some diagonal symmetries and some permutations of variables. In a previous paper, we explained that this construction should work only under a special condition on the permutation group called parity condition (PC). Here we prove that, if the permutation group is cyclic and satisfies PC, then the reduced orbifold Euler characteristics of the Milnor fibres of dual pairs coincide up to sign.
We consider the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and dynamical operators, both differential and difference, in the context of the (gl(k), gl(n))-duality for the space of polynomials in kn anticommuting variables. We show that the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and dynamical operators naturally exchange under the duality.
Using Dunkl operators, we introduce a continuous family of canonical invariants of finite reflection groups. We verify that the elementary canonical invariants of the symmetric group are deformations of the elementary symmetric polynomials. We also compute the canonical invariants for all dihedral groups as certain hypergeometric functions.
We discuss highest ℓ-weight representations of quantum loop algebras and the corresponding functional relations between integrability objects. In particular, we compare the prefundamental and q-oscillator representations of the positive Borel subalgebras of the quantum group Uq(L(sll+1)) for arbitrary values of l. Our article has partially the nature of a short review, but it also contains new results. These are the expressions for the L-operators, and the exact relationship between different representations, as a byproduct resulting in certain conclusions about functional relations.
We show that any complex (respectively real) representation of finite group naturally generates a open-closed (respectively Klein) topological field theory over complex numbers. We relate the 1-point correlator for the projective plane in this theory with the Frobenius-Schur indicator on the representation. We relate any complex simple Klein TFT to a real division ring.
We compare previously found finite-dimensional matrix and integral operator realizations of the Bailey lemma employing univariate elliptic hypergeometric functions. With the help of residue calculus we explicitly show how the integral Bailey lemma can be reduced to its matrix version. As a consequence, we demonstrate that the matrix Bailey lemma can be interpreted as a star-triangle relation, or as a Coxeter relation for a permutation group.
Given a Laurent polynomial f, one can form the period of f: this is a function of one complex variable that plays an important role in mirror symmetry for Fano manifolds. Mutations are a particular class of birational transformations acting on Laurent polynomials in two variables; they preserve the period and are closely connected with cluster algebras. We propose a higher-dimensional analog of mutation acting on Laurent polynomials f in n variables. In particular we give a combinatorial description of mutation acting on the Newton polytope P of f, and use this to establish many basic facts about mutations. Mutations can be understood combinatorially in terms of Minkowski rearrangements of slices of P, or in terms of piecewise-linear transformations acting on the dual polytope P* (much like cluster transformations). Mutations map Fano polytopes to Fano polytopes, preserve the Ehrhart series of the dual polytope, and preserve the period of f. Finally we use our results to show that Minkowski polynomials, which are a family of Laurent polynomials that give mirror partners to many three-dimensional Fano manifolds, are connected by a sequence of mutations if and only if they have the same period.
We study gl(2|1) symmetric integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using explicit formulas for the Bethe vectors we derive the actions of the monodromy matrix entries onto these vectors. We show that the result of these actions is a finite linear combination of Bethe vectors. The obtained formulas open a way for studying scalar products of Bethe vectors.
Local diffusion of strictly hyperbolic higher-order PDE's with constant coefficients at all simple singularities of corresponding wavefronts can be explained and recognized by only two local geometrical features of these wavefronts. We radically disprove the obvious conjecture extending this fact to arbitrary singularities: namely, we present examples of diffusion at all non-simple singularity classes of generic wavefronts in odd-dimensional spaces, which are not reducible to diffusion at simple singular points.
We introduce common generalization of (double) Schubert, Grothendieck, Demazure, dual and stable Grothendieck polynomials, and Di Francesco-Zinn-Justin polynomials. Our approach is based on the study of algebraic and combinatorial properties of the reduced rectangular plactic algebra and associated Cauchy kernels.
It was observed recently that relations between matrix elements of certain operators in the SL(2,R) spin chain models take the form of multidimensional integrals derived by R.A. Gustafson. The spin magnets with SL(2,C) symmetry group and L2(C) as a local Hilbert space give rise to a new type of Γ-function integrals. In this work we present a direct calculation of two such integrals. We also analyse properties of these integrals and show that they comprise the star-triangle relations recently discussed in the literature. It is also shown that in the quasi-classical limit these integral identities are reduced to the duality relations for Dotsenko–Fateev integrals.
We derive Fredholm determinant and series representation of the tau function of the Fuji-Suzuki-Tsuda system and its multivariate extension, thereby generalizing to higher rank the results obtained for Painlevé VI and the Garnier system. A special case of our construction gives a higher rank analog of the continuous hypergeometric kernel of Borodin and Olshanski. We also initiate the study of algebraic braid group dynamics of semi-degenerate monodromy, and obtain as a byproduct a direct isomonodromic proof of the AGT-W relation for $c=N-1$.
In this note we present a simple Lax description of the hierarchy of the intermediate long wave equation (ILW hierarchy). Although the linear inverse scattering problem for the ILW equation itself was well known, here we give an explicit expression for all higher flows and their Hamiltonian structure in terms of a single Lax difference-differential operator.