The article represents the results of epidemiological study during the period from 2001 to 2010 among indigenous population of 5 settlements of Chukci and Nenetz autonomous disticts. The aim of the study was identification of changes in concentrations of hazardous substances related to persistent pollutants (polychlorinated byphenils) in blood after realization in 2003-2004 of a complex of measures on detoxification of local sources of pollution and reduction of risks of their negative impact on humans, recommended by the International expert group of Arctic monitoring and assessment (AMAP) . It was identified that significant reduction of average concentrations of pollutants in blood by 2010 was observed only for men of Nenetz autonomus district for DDT and 4,4 DDE, as well as for lead. Changes in concentrations of the majority of other persistent toxic substances, though observed, did not reach the level of statistical importance.
The WHO strategy "Health for all" implements the transition from the paradigm of pathogenesis to salutogenesis, aimed at maintaining and strengthening public health, which in the field of work is provided by modern forms and methods of managing staff health and safety. Material and methods. The research was carried out at the enterprise of a high-tech machine-building complex for the production of gas turbines and included the study of professional stress, stress resistance and performance index in four groups of professions by means of a questionnaire survey. 144 employees (94 men and 50 women) aged from 26 to 45 years who have worked at the company for at least one year were invited to participate in the study voluntarily. Results. A multi-level regression model for assessing professional stress showed that psychophysiological, motivational, informational and behavioral factors determine the level of stress on average by 72.3 ± 2.6%, and a decrease in performance by 59.6 ± 4.6%. One of the results of the program implementation is the achievement of high motivation of employees to participate consciously in recreational activities at the workplace level (92%). Discussion. The conceptualization of occupational stress and performance is a prerequisite for the development and application of strategies to preserve and promote health at the workplace level, especially in intellectual work activities. These indicators can be used as predictors for determining the risk of early retirement, premature aging, and professional longevity, as well as for evaluating the quality of life of employees. Conclusion. Assessment and management of professional stress, maintaining high performance and forming a stable motivation of employees to participate in health-improving activities are one of the tools of the policy of maintaining health in the workplace and extending the professional longevity of the working population, which corresponds to the main goals of the national project "Demography".
The worldwide reduction of vaccination uptake due to the voluntary refusal by some subpopulations constitutes a significant threat to public health. The study aims to provide systematic description of the factors which influence attitudes or behaviors associated with a vaccination rejection. A systematic review was carried out in 2015 using the Web of Science database. The analysis included English-language articles published from 1980 to 2015 containing the results of original empirical research of the phenomenon of refusal of vaccination. Of the 679 records found 30 publications met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that the determination of non-vaccination is extremely variable. All factors refusal of vaccination discovered in the research were divided into four content blocks: 1) demographics and socioeconomic status; 2) cognitive; 3) behavioral and 4) other factors (a) vaccine-specific, b) health and medical conditions, c) social environment, d) informational influence. The active studying the vaccination refusal as a socio-psychological phenomenon last for about 15 years, the majority of studies performed in the United States and Canada. In more than 5 independent studies there were found links of non-vaccination attitudes or behavior to the following factors: the perceived low vaccine efficacy (cognitive factor); the idea of a high probability of serious side effects of vaccination and general vaccines unsafety (cognitive factor); low level of trust to "official" medicine and public entities (cognitive factor); use of complementary and alternative medicine by family members (behavioral factors). Other potentially important factors found in 5 studies were: low perceived risk of vaccine preventable diseases and the perceived potential harm of vaccination to the immune system of the child (cognitive factors). The systematic review revealed a general underestimation of the social and psychological factors in the study of the phenomenon of non-vaccination and an emphasis on cognitive factors.