Research question: This paper investigates how football sponsorship influences the financial performance of sponsors. We suggest a new instrumental variable to avoid endogeneity.
Research methods: We use an instrumental variable regression framework combined with a fixed effects model. The number of tweets containing both team and sponsor names are collected to use as the instrumental variable.
Results and findings: We analyze top European leagues. Our results show that football sponsorship is more charity than commercial investment. The analysis of determinants of becoming a sponsor and sponsorship amount shows that companies owned by individuals are more likely to become a sponsor.
Implications: Shareholders should be aware of sponsorship deals, and senior management should analyze the financial assumptions of such projects carefully.
Research question: Previous papers analysing broadcast demand for sports have provided general findings for the countries studied. However, each region in the same country could have different determinants. The present study aims to analyse the demand for broadcast football, emphasising the effect of the uncertainty of outcomes in Brazil’s two biggest markets: Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.
Research methods: The dataset comprises an unbalanced panel with club fixed effects, including all 228 broadcast matches from the Brazilian League across the seasons 2013 to 2015 – 115 from the state of Rio de Janeiro and 113 from the state of São Paulo. Three linear regressions are carried out in order to determine the importance of the uncertainty of outcome, as well as the existence of win preference or loss aversion behaviours.
Results and findings: The results highlight similarities between the markets, such as higher audiences on weekdays and the strong importance of derby matches in attracting viewers. However, the findings reveal that Rio de Janeiro fans exhibit loss aversion and São Paulo supporters prefer more certain matches.
Implications: Consumer preferences may differ across a country. Hence, by understanding the diversity in fan behaviour, TV channels might more effectively adjust the matches they broadcast, increasing fan interest in these games, as well as enhancing the channels’ and the clubs’ revenues.
Research question: Most people spend a large part of their adult life at work. This study investigated how access to sports infrastructure near workplaces is related to the sports participation of working adults, compared with access to sports infrastructure near their homes. Research methods: This study used data from a quantitative household survey conducted in 2017. The sample comprised 4006 individuals (including 2147 working adults) aged ≥15 years, representing the entire adult population of Russia. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate the role of infrastructure and individual characteristics in sports participation. Results and findings: Only a quarter of Russian adults were regularly involved in sports. The sports participation of Russian adults was attributed to their individual characteristics (gender, age, education, health, and family characteristics) and access to sports infrastructure located near their homes and workplaces. For working adults, access to sports infrastructure near their workplaces was associated with a 12 percentage points increase in the probability of sport participation compared with an 8 percentage points increase associated with access to sports infrastructure near their homes. Implications: There is a need to improve working adults’ access to sport facilities. Developing sports infrastructure close to workplaces may have an even stronger potential effect on sports participation among working adults, than investing in infrastructures close to their homes. It can result in additional benefits for workers, employers, and sports providers.