Sampling from the posterior probability distribution of the latent states of a hidden Markov model is nontrivial even in the context of Markov chain Monte Carlo. To address this, proposed a way of using a particle filter to construct a Markov kernel that leaves the posterior distribution invariant. Recent theoretical results have established the uniform ergodicity of this Markov kernel and shown that the mixing rate does not deteriorate provided the number of particles grows at least linearly with the number of latent states. However, this gives rise to a cost per application of the kernel that is quadratic in the number of latent states, which can be prohibitive for long observation sequences. Using blocking strategies, we devise samplers that have a stable mixing rate for a cost per iteration that is linear in the number of latent states and which are easily parallelizable.
In this paper, in-sample forecasting is defined as forecasting a structured density to sets where it is unobserved. The structured density consists of one-dimensional in-sample components that identify the density on such sets. We focus on the multiplicative density structure, which has recently been seen as the underlying structure of non-life insurance forecasts. In non-life insurance the in-sample area is defined as one triangle and the forecasting area as the triangle that 20 added to the first triangle produces a square. Recent approaches estimate two one-dimensional components by projecting an unstructured two-dimensional density estimator onto the space of multiplicatively separable functions. We show that time-reversal reduces the problem to two onedimensional problems, where the one-dimensional data are left-truncated and a one-dimensional survival density estimator is needed. This paper then uses the local linear density smoother with 25 weighted cross-validated and do-validated bandwidth selectors. Full asymptotic theory is provided, with and without time reversal. Finite sample studies and an application to non-life insurance are included.