This study examines using a complex systems approach, the reciprocal relationships between innovation, internationalization, and organizational learning in small businesses. After analyzing 54 companies and purposefully selecting 12 particularly information‐rich cases, we find that these three key activities are reciprocally linked to each other, forming a complex circular system. The firms’ evolution also shows that faced with various change elements, the system evolved toward adopting one of up to four patterns of interaction, characterized by low and high incremental and radical innovation, local and global internationalization, and adaptive and generative learning. The findings are relevant to scholars, managers, and policymakers.
Many startups use Lean Startup (LS). But is it effective? While there are emerging qualitative findings, quantitative evidence does not yet exist. To address this gap, we developed an operationalization of the degree to which startups use LS (Lean Startup Capability, LSC). We then analyzed the LSC-performance relationship. We found a strong and robust relationship. A discussion contextualizes our findings. The LSC operationalization is relevant for research as future efforts can build on and extend it. The contribution to entrepreneurial practice is that we carved out the element of LSC, and showed that LS is indeed linked to performance.
A cold war exists in faculties of business and economics. It is fought between the neo-Marshellians that advocate the elegant simplifying assumption of equilibrium and the Schumpeterians that believe that economic growth is driven by the recognition of new opportunities and the capture of associated benefits through innovation. This fundamental disagreement is referred to as a cold war because the battles are fought indirectly with discussions of wealth transfer (instead of wealth creation), big firms versus small firms (instead of innovative firms versus noninnovative), and stability and managed earnings versus Sarbanes-Oxley and full disclosure. This note points out that this conflict does in fact exist and then provides a review of the literature and support for the Schumpeterian position as it relates to small business and associated economic policy. The literature is provided by one of the pioneers in this field, Professor Bruce Kirchhoff, as his last direct contribution to the field that he championed for decades. © 2013 International Council for Small Business.
Student proclivity to start a venture can be affected not only by the university environment where they are exposed to entrepreneurship, but also by perceptions of how desirable entrepreneurial behavior is considered to be in a given society. Based on an embeddedness perspective, and using a sample of students from 26 countries and 489 universities, evidence is produced of significant positive relationships between both curricular and co‐curricular programing and student start‐up activities, with specific cultural dimensions moderating these impacts. University seed funds for students negatively impact the scope of start‐up activities. Implications are drawn for educators and policy makers.