The article deals with the literary-historical reconstruction of the context of translation «The Funeral» («Das Siegesfest» by Schiller). This text was written around 1850. At this time, Tyutchev translates much less than before, but Schiller has become the most «translatable» author for Tyutchev. The commentary tradition elevates the poem to Schiller's «Iliad», but this is inaccurate: in this poem there are a lot more parallels with «Odyssey». Tyutchev's «Das Siegesfest» was inspired by the complete publishing of «the Odyssey» (1849). This work by V. A. Zhukovsky had to remind Tyutchev about the «Triumph of winners» — the translation of «Das Siegesfest», made by V. A. Zhukovsky twenty years earlier. It is known that Tyutchev got acquainted with the text of «the Odyssey» by V. A. Zhukovsky before the publication. Based on biographical data and chronologically correlated facts, the article is linked with the return of Tyutchev to poetic activities with his impression of «Odyssey» by Zhukovsky. The poem «The Funeral» by Tyutchev was a response to the early translation «The Triumph of the winners» by Zhukovsky and the translation of the «Odyssey» by Zhukovsky. Special attention to Schiller could be a «poetic criticism» associated with the prohibition of Schiller's play in Russia in late 1840-s and early 1850-s.
Macedonian possesses a rich system of affixes, some of them are considered to be completely synonymous. This is the case for diminutive suffixes serving to build diminutives from feminine nouns: there are four suffixes, three of them are of protoslavonic origin (namely, suffixes -ka, -ca, -ica) and one - -ichka - is considered to be of a more recent descent. As those suffixes have virtually the same range of meanings, a question arises as to their rivalry. Our research revealed that not all of the suffixes in question have the potential to combine with all the stem types. Their combinability is restrained by their morphonological properties and these constraints form a system of suffixal distribution. Having studied a corpus of over 500 diminutives, we came to the conclusion that suffix -ka primarily serves as a substitute suffix in the cases where other suffixes cannot combine, suffix -ca can solely combine with a single stem type (stems of feminine nouns ending with a consonant, former i-stems), and suffixes -ichka and -ica, possessing similar properties, are engaged in a rivalry which apparently is settled in favour of the former.
The article deals with the generation of poetic texts with artificial neural networks. The author gives a brief history of the method. The article describes some important properties of the training sample. For example the sample needs to be large enough. The article gives some examples of Russian poetic texts, generated by a neural network. The texts generated by the model trained on Russian hexameters, on poems of a modern poet Natalia Azarova and on texts of classic Russian bard Vladimir Vysotsky. The analysis showed that the neural network reproduces the style and metrical features of the original sample. The style of the lyrical texts reproduced better than any other type of text. A neural network is practically unable to reproduce the features of narrative works. In the cultural and intellectual context, the texts of the neural network can be understood as deconstruction (Derrida) and reassembling (Latour).
This study introduces a complex networks-based approach to quantifying agglutination. This approach is one of the most powerful ways of model description but it has been rarely used for linguistic needs and there are very few papers where it is applied to morphology.
The Bashkir language belongs to the Turkic languages which are considered to be agglutinative. Although the notion of agglutination was introduced in the 19th century, there is no generally accepted definition of an agglutinative language. Different features were supposed to be necessarily present in an agglutinative language, however, there seems to be no correlation between them. In this study we discuss the data provided by our network and relevant for the notion of agglutination and transcategoriality.
We conducted our study on Bashkir newspaper texts containing 5.8 mln tokens overall. They were annotated with the program “Bashmorph”. We built a network where nodes are affixes while edges represent cooccurrence of an affix pair. The network was built as weighted (based on the frequency of cooccurrences) and undirected. The network consists of 294 nodes and 3446 edges.
It turns out that several standard coefficients characterizing such a network help to quantify and describe certain characteristics of a language. In our case, most parameters correspond to agglutination. Namely, we discuss the meaning of assortativity coefficient, cliques number, maximal k-core, cluster coefficient and network density as well as some other data.