This paper studies drivers for eco-innovation in Russian manufacturing ﬁrms on a sample of 2,212 innovative ﬁrms, of which over 600 introduced eco-innovations. The companies in our sample speciﬁcally mention environmental regulation as a reason for engaging in eco-innovations. Furthermore, we show that those ﬁrms who engage in eco-innovations are motivated even stronger by the desire to increase resource efﬁciency. Companies under state ownership are especially prone to a higher likelihood to invest. We conclude that regulations are mostly relevant to the late comers who are obliged to follow minimum standards. On the other hand, the state uses its controlling inﬂuence to press companies under their control to exceed these minimum standards. Thus, we argue, state ownership does indeed have an inﬂuence on both the likelihood to eco-innovate and on the levels of spending. Eco-innovative state-owned companies are only prone to invest in eco-innovations, if they get additional money.
Refurbishing products, which are increasingly sold in business-to-consumer markets, is a key strategy to reduce waste. Nevertheless, research finds that consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for refurbished products is low. Strategies for a higher WTP are needed in order to grow consumer markets for refurbished products. Eco-certification of refurbished products may be a key strategy here. Drawing on the consumer WTP literature concerning “green” products, we investigate the impact of independent eco-certificates. Our analysis is based on a survey of 231 potential customers. The results suggest that, across various product categories, the WTP for products with refurbished components is significantly lower. Adding an eco-certificate tends to return the WTP toward the virgin product level. We show that consumers with proenvironmental attitudes particularly exhibit green buying behavior. Our findings indicate that eco-certification is often worthwhile because it enhances the business rationale for producing products with refurbished components.