The article is devoted to the significance of the Constitution of Cadiz for bilateral relationship between Spain and Russia at the beginning of the XIX century and its intellectual importance for Russian society.
It shows that after two years of secret contacts between R.Koshelev, the representative of the Russian Emperor, on one hand, and A.Colombi, substituted later by F.Cea Bermúdez, on the other hand (both nominated by the national power as representatives of Spain, appointed to negotiate on military and political alliance), and after the begging of the invasion of the Napoleonic troops in the territory of Russia in June, 1812 developed to be official contacts.The negotiations culminated in the celebration of Russian-Spanish treaty, which was signed on July, 20, 1812 in Velikii Luki by F.Cea Bermúdez and N. Rumiántsev. Article 3 of the treaty stated that the Russian tsar Alexander I recognized the Constitution of 1812, so in that he was the first monarch in Europe. However the second promulgation of the Constitution of Cadiz in 1820 provoced admiration of the progressive part of the Russian society and hostility of the Emperor and his court.The intellectual importance of the Constitution of 1812 for the progressive part of the Russian society was outstanding. It became a symbol of the victory of the revolutionary and anti-absolutist movement for many Russians. The practical significance of the Constitution of 1812 in Russia is noted: the decembrist N.Muraviev took as models some of its provisions elaborating his constitutional projects.
The Constitution of 1812 was an object of scientific interest of Russian and Soviet historians, who emphasized its role in the political evolution of Spain in the European context. In the 30s of the XX century Soviet researchers paid particular attention to its role as the act of of the Spanish people`s protest. Both lines of the estimation of the Constitution were persued during the II part of the XXth century. First publications of Russian and Soviet authors devoted to the Constitution of 1812 demonstrated particular attention to its legal analisys in the contexst of the constitutional development of Spain and another European countries.