The article considers Wyndham Lewis’s autobiography Blasting and Bombardiering (1937) as an instrument for reassessing modernism and representing it to the wider readership of popular literature. Lewis’s employment of autobiography to conceptualise modernism and position himself within/towards it is a step away from his criticism where modern subjectivity, historical approach to the self, and fictionalisation of autobiography are repudiated. Such change was motivated not only by Lewis’s intention to make money on the audience’s taste for autobiographies and at the same time raise his profile in the recent literary history. The choice of genre also reflects Lewis’s post-war disillusionment with transformative yet detached modernism, with whose aesthetic standards the writer, nevertheless, wanted to maintain association. In this context, the populist intent of the autobiography can be seen as a means of rethinking the failed modernist attempt at objectivity. With the help of the form of autobiography, Lewis playfully subjects to detachment modernism itself, undermining the assumptions of its commitment to difficulty, elitism, and autonomy and highlighting the related tensions within his own aesthetics.
The article takes a closer look at internet versions of popular men’s magazines vis-à-vis their double discursive function, i.e. as a means of legitimizing a broad array of social practices, on the one hand, and their more general role in shaping consumer identity, on the other. The study is informed by socio-cognitive approach in critical discourse analysis (CDA). It is contended that the key form of social cognition that can be drawn upon in both aforementioned functions is the concept of values, which can be understood in three basic ways – as normative beliefs, value concepts and personal values. The focus of linguistic analysis is the language of appraisal in two text instances recontextualizing two social practices, those of ‘grooming’ and ‘dating’. The first text evaluates the elements of the practice primarily in terms of ‘appreciation’ – one of the three semantic regions of appraisal; the other two being ‘affect’ and ‘judgement’. The second text evaluates specific ways of acting within the social practice of dating through deployment of language resources of judgement and affect. Following the analysis of text instances it is argued that discursive function of values can be seen as twofold. On the one hand, specific instances of appraisal in discourse invoke values (that have been interpreted and conceptualized elsewhere) to legitimize a certain social practice. Rhetorically this move can be interpreted as geared towards promoting and advertising specific goods and services which are being naturalized as an integral part of the legitimized practice. This is exemplified by the way the first text naturalizes the use of specific grooming products. Alternatively, this move can be interpreted as a way of promoting the magazine (and the whole genre) itself through building strong solidarity with the putative addressee – a strategy which is arguably instantiated by the second text. On the other hand discursive recontextualization of such practices can be seen as a ‘system of interpretation’ aimed at ad hoc (re)conceptualizing and (re)negotiating specific values – a process that may contribute to formation of new values on the part of the addressee through abstraction and decontextualization. All the above mentioned effects can be also interpreted in a broader CDA perspective as instances of reproducing social power. Specifically, they can be seen as reproducing the ideology of consumerism characterized by the so called commodification of all aspects of life and naturalization of consumer identity. In this respect the analyzed texts with their specific language usage effectively accommodate a consumer position for the putative addressee – a consumer of specific goods and services and a consumer of the magazine and the ‘lifestyle’ that it sells in general.
The present paper tackles the question of smell semantics and semiotics in the context of intimate communication of sexes. The authors analyze the linguistic representation of different characteristics of woman's artificial smell and identify specific features of single lexemes’ use for the transmission of olfactory sensations. Analysis shows that the main ways of describing smell are:
1) hedonic odor assessment - evaluation by the "pleasant / unpleasant" criterion,
2) naming the smell-reference (riecht nach / Geruch von),
3) metaphorical transfer, especially to other sensory spheres (synesthesia), which distinguishes situationally significant signs of odor.
These language devices are used with approximately equal frequency and depend on individual olfactory preferences and on being included in a certain context. This fact is especially relevant for the study of smell representation in the intimate, often irrational reality of lovers’ communication.
When describing smell in the romantic discourse - one of lovers’ communication - the main thematic area is the nomination of a physiological impact on a partner who feels the existential necessity of perceiving the smell of the beloved woman and desire for physical affinity. This effect is verbalized by metaphors which represent women’s smell as an omnipresent peremptory aggressor pursuing the man in love, penetrating into his consciousness, owning his memories, destroying his moral foundations, manipulating his biological essence.
The smell is also often perceived as a poisonous substance that stupefies, deafens and intoxicates, emphasizing the insidious nature of the female smell, which acts on the invisible "front" secretly as a hidden saboteur.
An important means of describing female artificial smell in romantic discourse is the sensory-emotional synesthesia that represents the smell as a thirst quencher or a veil enveloping the beloved person with an invisible cloud. The smell of a beloved woman is delicious and sweet, gentle and sensual; its assessment takes the entire positive scale from "good" to "divine".
The symbolic component of woman's smell is largely determined by her axiological perception, represented by evaluative adjectives that characterize the behavior, the way of life of a woman, and evaluate her as a whole. Adjectives are, in addition, a means of verbal presentation of woman’s gender identity with an emphasis on the importance of self-presentation, "adornment" with pleasant smells.
In conclusion, the authors give a textual representation of the cognitive model of the female artificial smell, which connects all linguistic facts described above into a single logically connected scenario. This model demonstrates the scope and the internal semantic content of the subject area.
The article is devoted to the analysis of Boris Pasternak’s “Hamlet” with the help of some of the key concepts of the philosophy and motives of German romanticism, such as the theater, the night, the world soul, the microcosm and the macrocosm. The author also refers to the concepts of Mikhail Bakhtin’s chronotope and polyphony and to the concept of intertextuality, referring to the influence of German romantic poets on Boris Pasternak’s work.
There are a number of theoretical frameworks that lend themselves to interpreting textual meanings socially. These include Critical Discourse Analysis, Functional Stylistics and various schools of genre analysis both in this country and abroad. One of the most important albeit not conceptually unambiguous terms across these various approaches is genre. The term bears witness to the well-established idea that many instances of discourse often exhibit similar features in terms of language selections and textual strategies. In terms of genre, this is said to be attributable to similar communicative contexts that discourse enacts. Another term that also cuts across many approaches is the term discourse itself used broadly to signify the language use in general and/or specific texts seen as embedded in their communicative contexts. However, it seems that many studies could benefit from exploring genres drawing on the term discourse in its distinct Foucauldian sense as particular ways of representing the world. Indeed, by doing so discourse and genre can be used to generalize about different textual properties of one and the same text and/or type of texts, which allows to locate the text/type not only in the immediate communicative context but in the larger sociocultural practice as well. This is especially important when the study of genres in terms of linguistic variation is meant to complement the study of the same genres as a social phenomenon at large. One such constellation of genres that can benefit from this approach is lifestyle media, which is a relatively new phenomenon owing its recent surge in popularity largely to the development of the Internet. Lifestyle media has been extensively explored from social and cultural perspectives but only marginally so from the perspective of linguistic variation. The purpose of this article is therefore to explore specific textual features of one lifestyle media genre, thus outlining a framework for subsequent analysis of similar texts. Drawing on the theoretical framework of critical discourse analysis, a sample text from a popular men’s online magazine was analyzed in terms of its lexicogrammatical properties. The results indicate that some of these properties are attributable to the ways this text figure in a specific communicative situation and is used to act discoursally in it. Other properties reflect a certain repertoire of meanings associated with consumer culture and its discourse in general. This mapping of textual features onto actional and representational meanings contributes to the critical study of texts as configurations of genres and discourses. In a broader perspective, the results can illustrate how textual features reflect both professional practice of lifestyle journalism and consumer culture that this practice is arguably embedded in.
This paper is devoted to the cross disciplinary research of The Troubles. The abovementioned political and religious confrontation, being one of the most longstanding in Irish and British history, is analyzed across the issues of linguistic and literary studies. The methods applied are those of cognitive linguistics and corpus linguistics. The novelty of the approach is in an attempt to describe The Troubles as a concept in uniting media and literary discourses. The novels (R.M. Wilson’s Eurika Street, S. Deane’s Reading in the Dark, G. Patterson’s The International) and The Irish Times (rubric “Opinions”, 1996, 245 texts) are chosen for the research. 1996 is chosen as one of the acute moments of the standoff for the reason of ceasefire cessation. The paper provides theoretical underpinning for the approaches to terminology used, describes the developed methodology and presents the results for the media discourse analysis.
In this research discourse is understood as a complex communicative-cognitive issue capturing
both texts and extra linguistic factors. The authors consider the novels and newspapers to be essentials of the whole issue rhetoric, understanding media and literary discourses as parts of public discourse.
The concept “The Troubles” is understood as a dynamic structured cognition of the idea of ethnopolitical, religious and territorial relations between Catholics and Protestants in the Northern Ireland unambiguously perceived by the recipients as a conflict.
The first methodological step of the research is definitional analysis of “The Troubles”. It resulted in grouping its cognitive criteria: Political Organizations, Political Orientation, War, Religion, Authorities, Election, Media, Peace, People, Place, Conversation. The second step is building the core and the periphery of the concept using AntConc3.2.4w software and principles of corpus linguistics. The third is analyzing language features of “The Troubles” nominative field. The final step is describing cultural and evaluating particularity of the language features described.
The authors concluded that the ideas of conflicting parts exclusiveness are in the core of the concept, with Participants and Places of the events substantially presented. However, the cognitive criteria, sociocultural markers, characterized by striving for peaceful reconcilement of counterparts should not be underestimated, for they build the basis for the concept language representation upsides with the main cognitive criteria. The Irish Times in its entirety upholds a rather neutral presentation of “The Troubles”, while in the literary discourse the situation may be adverse.
The investigated time period and the only rubric “Opinions” restrict the research. The media discourse is much more diverse. But these restrictions make it possible to proceed with describing the evaluative features of the concept as well as with investigating other media materials, for example, movies.
The article presents a comparative study of the metaphorical representation of the concept GROWTH in Russian and English academic discourse in economics. Academic discourse in economics is defined as a variety of verbalized human actions, and includes written texts produced by professionals and intended for other professionals with the same or different expertise. There proves to be interdependence between conceptualization of special knowledge in discourse and metaphorization of discourse.
The present article aims to reveal the universal and divergent aspects of metaphor models of the concept GROWTH and to compare and contrast metaphor models of this concept in Russian and English academic texts on macroeconomics. To obtain a deeper insight into the cognitive mechanism of academic discourse in which professional communication may vary in the terms of professional competence, the author focuses only on the academic texts produced by professionals and intended for learners with a different expertise. Taking into account the specificity of economics as a field of knowledge and cultural differences, the author assumes that metaphor models of economic concepts reflect cultural premises of special knowledge conceptualization. The task is approached through a comprehensive analysis of conceptual metaphor models based on Metaphor Identification Procedure VU University Amsterdam (MIPVU).
Initially, the author explores metaphorical units in contexts which contain the lexeme ‘growth’ in Russian and English texts. In order to establish the contextual meaning, the author applies a practical and systematic method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse that addresses the way that the two conceptual structures (Source Domain and Target Domain) correspond. Then, by using the method of metaphoric modeling based on taxonomic categorization, the author builds a metaphoric model. Finally, she compares the metaphorical representation of the concept GROWTH in Russian and English academic economic discourse.
Findings highlight the areas of commonality as well as divergence in the cultural terms represented in conceptual metaphors of the concept GROWTH in Russian and English academic economic discourse. The main differences in the scope of the source analysis are quantitative rather than qualitative. The most representative metaphor model in the Russian discourse is the Human Being metaphor followed by Human Activity, whereas in the English discourse this is Human Being followed by Mechanism. The most detailed metaphor model of Human Activity representing the concept GROWTH is comprised of two similar models in both discourses such as the metaphors of Behavior and Struggle. However, the concept GROWTH in the Russian discourse is also represented through the Professional Activity metaphor, whereas its representation in the English discourse is through the Power metaphor, the Game metaphor and the Theater metaphor.
The paper presents the results of research aimed at revealing individual means of metaphoric conceptualization of aging and old age resorted to by ordinary speakers of contemporary American English. The interpretation of the existential experience of aging is a cognitive process of high complexity, which stems both from subjective factors and a wide variability of conceptual landmarks reflected and reinforced in discursive practices. The heterogeneity of the discourse of aging is accounted for by a complex dynamics of demographic, economic, political, social and other processes that shape significantly differing interpretations of old age and its axiological assessment and contribute to the simultaneous circulation of a wide range of genetically unrelated metaphors. Native speakers master the metaphorical repertoire offered by their culture, adapt it to their cognitive needs and are potentially capable of creating their own metaphorical mappings. The methodological basis of the present research is the theory of metaphorical creativity proposed by Z. Kövecses and the metaphoric landscape theory advanced by J. Lawley and P. Tompkins. The paper describes the experiment conducted on Survey Monkey among native speakers of American English aged 40-80+. The respondents were requested to answer 10 open-ended questions, whose construction met two basic criteria: 1) the presence of a simile marker aimed at preventing the respondents from using simple predicative constructions, and 2) the use of ‘clean language’ (Lawley & Tompkins), which is supposed to prevent the effect of semantic priming. 72 respondents, who took part in the survey, presented 720 answers, 357 (49,58 per cent) of which were identified as metaphorical. The analysis revealed the presence of a considerable number of culturally licensed metaphorical forms, such as phytonymic images (wilting flower, aging tree, dried fruit), alcoholic and gastronomic metaphors (aged wine / cheese), various mechanical imagery (slowing down clock, broken automobile), variations of LIFE IS A JOURNEY metaphor and others. Analysis shows, however, that even when resorting to the traditional conceptual format, respondents are capable of creatively playing with the source domain discovering hidden metaphorical possibilities (aging is ‘driving on empty’, ‘a pothole on the life road’) and offering non-standard verbal representations (aging is a ‘trip’). A particularly telling example of metaphorical creativity is the choice of a source domain when conceptualizing the traditional attributes of old age. Thus, wisdom traditionally associated with old age is presented as a book (a mystery novel, an encyclopedia, a library, etc.), a computer hard drive, the Google search engine, a treasure and postgraduate education. Of special interest are unique creative metaphors, which include, among others, such forms as: old age is ‘Groundhog Day in Hell’, ‘becoming the Tin Man’, and ‘flat soda’. The analysis of answers presented by individual respondents shows that the typical configuration of the metaphorical landscape of aging and old age includes one or two central metaphors presented in slightly differing conceptual and verbal forms and a number of genetically different isolated metaphors.
The article aims to produce an analysis, typology and understanding of the specifics brought about into the English XX-century novel by memory as a technology to narrate the past which has complicated the already existing system of narrative modes and formed a poetics of its own.
The research is based on eleven first-person retrospective English novels: The Good Soldier; Coming Up for Air; Brideshead Revisited; A Dance to the Music of Time; Free Fall; The Sea, the Sea; Waterland; Last Orders; The Remains of the Day; Experiment in Love; Love, etc.
Using historical-literary approach, comparative analysis and narratological methods, the article produces a typological description of such poetological categories as the narrator’s image, the chronotope, the narratee and the system of narrative modes (memory, document and tale).
Developing Bakhtin’s definition of the novel as a “genre of formation” we describe our novels as those of reformation. The narrator is placed in a liminal situation (death, existential crisis, loss of job or divorce) which urges him/her to restore the past. The narrator typically belongs to intellectual background (artist, writer, theatre director, school teacher) and is prone to self-reflection.
The temporal transfer into the past correlates with the physical movement, namely with the chronotope of the road. The past is restored as a result of a return trip (accidental in Waugh or conscious in Orwell and in “Last Orders”) or may unfold in the process of prospective journey as in Ishiguro.
In Waugh and Powell memory is autocommunicative: the narrators restore the past inside their minds, without addressing anyone. Here the implied reader steps to the forefront: by noticing repetitions, omissions and contradictions it makes the narrated world one whole. This reader is not limited to a private story but, through a system of cultural, historical and literary allusions, also shares the cultural past with the characters of Powell and Swift.
Memory also enters symbiotic relations with oral and written modes which makes the novels more dialogic. Via written mode in Murdoch and Golding the novel attempts to bridge the gap between fiction and reality and obtain the status of a real object (the book, the text) through the narrator’s metaliterary commentary and reflection. In the second case (Orwell, Mantel and Barnes) memory is verbalized as a system of voices that address each other and/or the reader. The reader, thus, is involved into the fictional world as a participant.
Ford, Swift and Ishiguro equivocally merge all three modes which, respectively, reflects Dowell’s attempt to escape self-judgement, correlates with the message on the universal connection between times, people and events, is a perfect technique to portray an unreliable narrator. Overall the permeability of modes exemplifies the XX-century tendency to relativize ontological, temporal and narrative borders.
The research into German youth-speak (Jugendsprache) has been going on for three centuries. The aim of this paper is to define major linguistic concepts, reflecting the formation, development and functioning of German young people`s slang. The research employs objective approach, based on characterization and methodical recording of evidence from the history of language, as well as an approach which is a part of the taxonomic method ( when similar occurrences in science are compared to develop a theory in some area of linguistic knowledge). The research is based on monographs, articles and lectures by leading foreign linguists, published in journals in XVIII – XXI centuries, as well as lexicographical sources from this period. In the course of investigation three significant stages in the linguistic exploration of the German youth-speak are identified. They are closely connected with historical periods when youth slang came into being and started to evolve. The first stage (XVIII century – the early XX century) is the research into historical German students` slang (historische deutsche Studentensprache/Burschensprache). The earliest lexicographical sources of the students` slang go back to XVIII century and the first scholars who made the youth-speak part of the linguistic research were F. Kluge (1895) and J. Meier (1910). Those scientists uncovered the sources of the vocabulary input, described lexico-semantic processes inside it, and highlighted its interaction with Argo and colloquial language. Both F. Kluge and J. Meier point out that it`s not enough to catalogue the distinguishing characteristics of students` lexicon, it`s vital to analyze its influence on the national language. Thus, in the linguistic findings of that period the first attempts to form general conclusions about youth-speak were made. The second stage (the first three decades of the XX century) involved the research into historical German school language (historische deutsche Schülersprache/Pennälersprache). The main findings of that period belong to R. Eilenberger (1910) and F. Melzer (1928), who examined slang words and expressions in the context of real life led by school students, conducted the comparative analysis of school sociolect, the student-speak and other types of slang. The third stage (the 50s of the XX century – present) is concerned with the research into German young people`s slang (allgemeine deutsche Jugendprache), which has included both the slang of the young people who study and of those who work. This period has seen more comprehensive examination of familiar and new contexts. Along with the traditional lexical characteristics, its phonetic and grammatical distinctive qualities have been analyzed (H. Henne), the youth-speak has been defined as a complex language register (P. Schlobinski), its most important distinguishing attributes have been described (H. Ehmann), and its usage in fiction and media (M. Chun) as well as Internet (J. Androutsopoulos) has been studied. It`s also worth mentioning the numerous works by E. Neuland, who characterizes the youth-speak as an evolving entity, as an international, historical and group phenomenon, the phenomenon in media, human interactions and language consciousness. The analysis of the trends and approaches to German youth-speak in XVIII – XXI centuries, comparison of its vocabulary, spelling and grammar over different periods of time have resulted in the following findings: 1. German youth-speak is a historical phenomenon going back to the past centuries rather than a modern linguistic product. 2. At the initial stage German youth-speak was based on the national language and used semantic and word-building elements of ancient languages. Later on it expanded through metaphorization of the vocabulary in general use, word-building derivation and borrowings. 3. Historical students` slang, historical school pupils` slang and modern young people`s slang are different stages in the evolution of one and the same phenomenon – German youth-speak.
The paper describes a phonetic experiment that dealt with the place assimilation of voiceless palatalized alveolar fricative /sj/ by following postalveolar alveo-palatal fricative /ɕ:/ at word boundaries in Modern Standard Russian. As the former sibilant is commonly described as geminated sound and Russian prohibits long consonants in positions near other consonants, the assimilation process can potentially lead to neutralization in such minimal pairs of word combinations as проявила щедрость ‘(she) showed generosity’ and проявилась щедрость ‘generosity showed itself’.
The participants of the experiment, 20 native Russian speakers (10 men and 10 women aged 18 to 40), were instructed to read a list of sentences that included 8 minimal pairs of target word combinations embedded in carrier phrases. All stimuli were recorded in intervocalic position; phrasal accent on stimuli was avoided; accent structure of the target word combinations was deliberately varied (clusters were recorded in all possible positions with regard to stressed and unstressed vowels).
All recordings were analyzed using computer software Praat. The duration and homogeneity of fricative noise were measured. Spectral analysis showed that in 78% of tokens place assimilation of sibilants at word boundaries was complete. The measurements of duration confirmed that this parameter could vary widely, mostly in connection with stress. The duration of [ɕ(:)] sounds within minimal pairs pronounced by the same speaker showed that in similar conditions in 95,5% of cases the sound representing the underlying /sj#ɕ:/ was longer than the surface representation of the underlying /#ɕ:/ (mean difference 34,9 ms; mean duration ratio 1,26).
In order to find out whether these durational differences can be used by native speakers to distinguish minimal pairs a perception experiment was conducted. 15 native speakers, students aged 17-19, were presented with 35 stimuli (word consequences recorded during the described above experiment, but removed from phrasal context; the duration of the fricative varied widely from 135 to 202 ms). The participants’ task was to write down what they think they heard. Their responses demonstrated that they could not reliably distinguish tokens with place assimilation of underlying /sj/ (the number of correct guesses was at a chance rate – 50,8%) and tokens without underlying /sj/ (the number of correct guesses was only slightly larger – 57,1%) despite the significant durational differences.
The described phenomenon can be interpreted as a case of incomplete neutralization. The experiments showed that the neutralization of /#ɕ:/ and /sj#ɕ:/ at word boundaries in Russian is phonetically incomplete due to the significant durational differences between the produced fricatives, although these acoustic cues were not used by native speakers in distinguishing minimal pairs.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the associative field “Darkhan / Smith” in language consciousness of Buryat people. Data for the analysis are the results of associative experiment, one of research methods of language consciousness, which gives possibility to reveal systemacity of maintenance of an image of the consciousness standing behind the word in culture, its ethnocultural specifics. With the leading role of Russian language of communication in the Republic of Buryatia it was interested to find out the common and specific features in the image “Darkhan” in language consciousness of bilingual buryat people and of the Buryat with Russian as a native language. An associative reactions classification "a semantic Gestalt" of Yu. N. Karaulov is used for the analysis, which reflects internal semantic the organization of the associative field and characterizes the field as full unit of knowledge of the world.
The article deals with the analysis of lexicographic word meaning ”Darkhan / Smith”. Data of the Buryat-Russian dictionaries of S. M. Babushkin, L.D.Shagdarov and K. M. Cheremisov are attracted for the analysis, which are the most unabridged editions nowdays. In this work functioning of dictionary word meanings “Darkhan” in language consciousness the Buryat bilingual people and the Buryat with native Russian is revealed.
Psycholinguistic and lexicography word meaning “Darkhan / Smith” are considered in the article. The psycholinguistic word meaning (term of I.A Sternin and A.V.Rudakova) is understood as the ordered unity of all semantic components which staticizes separately the taken floor in consciousness of native speakers, this real word meaning functioning in language consciousness of native speakers. As a result of the carried-out analysis it is established that the psycholinguistic word meaning isn't always wider, than lexicographic, recorded in explanatory dictionaries, as it is said by I.A Sternin and A.V.Rudakova. The word meaning “Darkhan” in the Buryat culture is narrowed. One of the reasons of this process is a weak position of the Buryat language as daily main language of communication in the Republic of Buryatia. Now the first dictionary word meaning “Darkhan” – “the smith, the handicraftsman, the master working with metal, weapon, and also with gold” functions in language consciousness of the Buryat. The Buryat bilingual people have the meaning “the carpenter, the joiner, the builder worked with the stone and the tree”. But the word meaning “the chaser, the master in silver, the woodcarver” it isn't revealed at one of groups.
The article is devoted to the description of the dynamic processes taking place in the German youth sociolect which in modern Germanic studies is traditionally referred to as youth language (Jugendsprache). Youth sociolect is a constantly evolving part of the language. It is the most flexible layer of the language in which a constant process of updating the vocabulary structure is going on, as a result of which there appear not only new slang words and expressions but also there emerge new previously unknown thematic areas. The objective reason for these changes is that certain notions go out of use and new concepts that are to be named come up. The subjective reason lies in the activity and creativity of the slang speakers who think of new words and expressions and constantly invest them with a different meaning later on. The research also explores in moving fashion changes in the gender aspect of the youth sociolect. In the XVIII-XIX centuries slang was predominantly young men’s domain since women were not allowed to universities. In the XX century women got access to higher education but the situation hardly changed and slang words continued to be concerned with male preoccupations. In the XXI century the gender asymmetry starts to decrease gradually with slang used equally by both men and women. Lexico-semantic development is most visible in the change of meanings of slang words that lose their old meanings and repeatedly acquire new ones, in which connection this process can be repeated again and again. The changes in semantics take place at irregular intervals. Sometimes terms get back their old meanings one or two centuries later. This is mostly the case with polysemantic slang words that change only some of their meanings rather than all of them. The process of creation of new slangy names for designation of the same persons, objects, concepts is also very active thanks to which there appear synonymic groups which length indicates the importance of these realities for youth slang speakers. Due to the transparency of the borders of the youth language we observe transition of separate lexical units into colloquial and even standard language as is evidenced by the development of some student terms and expressions which are traced in the article three centuries back. The research is a case study of the material of the most significant dictionaries of the XVΙΙΙ – XXΙ centuries. All the findings are illustrated by concrete examples from these lexicographic sources.
There are essentially two approaches to the question of the boundaries of translatability. The former claims that translation is impossible as each language interprets reality in its own way and each linguistic community perceives the world in its own particular way. The latter approaches untranslatability as a more specific problem – the one which arises due to the existence of certain “gaps” between the source language (SL) and the target language (TL), but is somehow solved in each case. The article discusses a particular case of untranslatability – the rendering of the SL nonce words (or occasional words). They are created ad hoc and characterized by the entirety of the conventional and the individual, the stereotype and creativity as well as the author’s linguistic and extralinguistic background. Nonce words do not have fixed translation equivalents, thus forcing the translator to make a specific translation decision each time s/he encounters a nonce word in the SL text. The translation decision depends on the understanding of the SL text, which, in the case of nonce words, can be a challenge for the translator. The context helps to overcome the problem of understanding but the context only is not enough when the text is “linguistically preconditioned”. An example of a linguistically preconditioned text is Ulysses written by J. Joyce. We argue that it is the world building pattern (model) that fosters the understanding of the SL nonce words and helps the translator to make a translation decision. The statistical analysis shows that J. Joyce’s nonce words are mainly formed by conventional word buildings patterns, with composition being the most frequently used model (61 %) and affixation and conversion being used less often (16 % and 3 % respectively). The comparative analysis of J. Joyce’s nonce lexis and its Russian and German translation equivalents demonstrates that the translators tend to use the replication of the word building pattern as a prevalent translation method (70 % and 50 % for German and Russian translations respectively). Transliteration/transcription (16 % and 7 % for German and Russian translations respectively), omission (1 % and 3 %) and transformation (3 % and 18 %) as well as the usage of conventional TL lexis (10 % and 25 %) are the methods which are less regularly used to render J. Joyce’s nonce words. This data indicates that the German language is more likely to allow the translator to replicate the form of an English nonce word. It results from the close genetic relationship between English and German. Overall, the research findings indicate that even intrinsically “untranslatable” units (such as nonce words) can be translated. Yet, the problem of translatability cannot be fully solved as nonce words have neither a conventional form nor a conventional meaning.
The article is devoted to the study of the paradigmatic connections of Marina Tsvetaeva’s early poetry with the German poetic tradition of the second half of the 18th century, which is based on a comparative intertextual analysis of Marina Tsvetaeva’s “The Girl Death” and J. W. von Goethe’s “The Fisherman”. The analysis uses both other works of German poetry and the texts of Marina Tsvetaeva, to create the necessary context.
The article deals with the metaphor as one of the means of personal knowledge representation in the scientific text on Political Studies which manifests itself in a unique scholar’s choice of source domains at different stages of cognition. The purpose of the research is to construct metaphorical models of personal knowledge represented in the scientific text on Political Studies and compare them with the ones of the mass media political discourse. The data for the analysis is the scientific article of the American political scientist A.J. Gregor “The roots of revolutionary ideology”. The methods of interpretation, modeling, conceptual and linguistic analyses allowed to identify conventional and original metaphors expressing the scientist’s unique conceptual view and build models of the original metaphors, represented in problem-stating and hypothetic, substantiating and deducing subtexts as well as of the whole author’s conception. The analysis of the metaphorical models revealed that the dominant models of the scientific article by A.J.Gregor are the models of NATURE, PRODUCTION, DEPENDENCE and VAGUENESS represented in all the subtexts of the scientific text. The analysis also revealed that there are submodels constituting the dominant ones. These are the models of PROPERTY, DWELLING, MECHANISM, DISEASE, DIVINE, and PART-WHOLE relevant to the author’s cognitive and communicative experience. The specificity of the research is the author’s model of conception built on the basis of the metaphorical models identified at all cognition stages. The model of the conception looks the following way: LURID LIGHT OF MARXISM MORAL – UNCERTAINTY OF MORAL – BIOLOGISM OF MORAL – RIGIDITY IN PHENOMENA BONDS – MORAL RIGIDITY CASTS SHADOW ON ХХc. Within the classification of the metaphorical models built by A.P. Tchudinov common for political mass media and scientific discourses are the ARTEFACT (DWELLING, MECHANISM, PRODUCTION and DEPENDENCE) AND ANTHROPOMORPHIC (HUMAN TRAITS and DISEASE) models. Specific to the analysed text are the models of PART-WHOLE, which correlate with the model of CONTAINER proposed by G.Lakoff, DIVINE and VAGUENESS, represented in the substantiating subtext and manifesting the scholar’s unique personal knowledge about Marxism.
The article «Epistemological crisis in Graham Swift’s novels Waterland and Last Orders» focuses on exploring forms of representation of distrust in history and disbelief in learning the past in Graham Swift’s novels. Philosophical and historical concepts are central to both books, both examine the ways of getting the knowledge but are very different in scale.
English literature of the end of the XX century represents rationality crisis caused by social cataclysms, wars and destruction of the XX century. Chaos and unstable reality, unapprehensiveness of the world and narratives about this world – history – topics typical of Graham Swift’s writing. Shift of ideological paradigms, caused by change in social systems, and destroying explanatory schemes has brought discredit to historical narratives of the end of millenium. Literature of the end of the XX century in general pays special attention to these topics, but for Graham Swift’s writing they are most significant.
Epistemological crisis of contemporary history resulted in distrust in traditional historiography and traditional historical sources; it gave rise to a very special type of literary writing, represented by novels of A.Carter, J.Barnes, P.Ackroyd, A.Byatt etc. They wrote about living in crisis, history, both public and private and explored existential questions in their novels. Personal history was mythologized in XX century; private history is at the forefront of writers’ interest: they shifted from epic social pictures to existential framework of living. Graham Swift is known to be obsessive about exploring history and the ways people get knowledge.
Historical process in Graham Swift’s novels is always nonlinear; it is not determined by direct cause-effect relation. History in his writing is not characterized by a gradual advance; progress as a form of social development is typically negated. “Knowing” as a problem of learning the past on both philosophical and common sense levels is central to all Swift’s novels but is of particular interest in Waterland and Last Orders. It is the way Swift interprets learning the past distinguishes Waterland and Last Orders. Waterland represents a metaphysical picture of the world history, regional and natural history and family life of several generations, while the space of Last Orders is narrowed to a funeral day of one of the characters giving a fine example of «everyday life» philosophy.
It is supposed that Graham Swift’s novels epitomize a postmodern view on historical process: he is critical to the very idea of having reliable knowledge about the past; he rethinks the idea that history might “be learnt” at all, his characters distrust the knowledge they get.