Previous research has examined the financial and volunteer problems of non-profit sport clubs in an isolated manner and has neglected the influence of sponsorship and subsidy funding, which we term as external funding, may have on both problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of this external funding on financial and volunteer problems, and the relationship between both types of problems. The nature of the effect of external funding is conceptualized taking several perspectives. Using data from a survey of sport clubs in Germany a bivariate probit model is estimated. The results provide evidence that both problems are interrelated. Clubs relying on sponsorship income experience larger financial and volunteer problems, while subsidies only increase volunteer problems. Moreover, club philosophy variables significantly impact both types of problems while governance structure does not. Internal revenues and miscellaneous external revenues have no significant impact on either type of problem. The findings have implications for club management.
This study provides readers with new information about key drivers of performance in the emerging area of eSports. Competitive computer gaming (eSports) is becoming increasingly popular, and the number of gamers and amount of prize money is growing. We therefore explore some key country-level characteristics that may contribute to players’ success, measured as money won. We use gamers’ prize earnings aggregated by country and a hurdle model to understand the determinants of performance. The results show that a 1% increase in GDP per capita leads to a 2.2% increase in prize money per capita. Country population is not statistically significant in the outcome model. This finding may indicate that eSports talents are not uniformly distributed across the world population. Surprisingly, post-Soviet and planned or post-planned economies are more likely to participate in eSports.
European football in general and Spanish football in particular is experiencing huge financial difficulties. This paper analyzes Spanish clubs during the period from 2007 until 2011, using Altman’s models to classify clubs according to their Z-score values. Through these models, the determinants of the clubs’ poor financial situation are identified. The evidence suggests that Spanish football is in very poor financial condition. To improve its situation what is required is a substantial injection of capital funding through issuing shares or asking for substantial contributions from members, increasing revenues, reducing wages and salaries, and working to reduce current liabilities.
The determinants of sporting success in Olympic Games and international football have been analysed. Nevertheless, few studies are found on football club-level. The aim of this paper is to identify the determinants of sporting success at professional club-level studying the Brazilian League. The dataset comprises all 30 football clubs that competed in the First Division of the Brazilian League from 2010 to 2014. The econometric approach consists in an ordered logit regression. The dependent variable is the final position of each club. The findings reveal that team payroll, placement in a city with higher standard of living, the number of previous participations and a current title in the State Championships maximize the likelihood of success. However, the number of players used negatively affects the sporting performance. The peculiarities of Brazilian football are used to discuss the findings. Further papers on European football are recommended as some determinants could vary.
Most of previous papers analyse the broadcast demand for a single league. However, professional football clubs participate in two or more tournaments simultaneously every season. Hence, the perception of fans may differ. This is a relevant topic once the television rights constitute the main source of revenue on professional football. The Brazilian football market is an appropriate laboratory to test it: the first division teams’ play two national-level tournaments, a state-level championship as well as the top clubs also compete in an international championship. The dataset comprises 458 broadcast matches in Brazil from 2013 to 2015. The singularity of this sample is that all matches are broadcast by the same free-to-air television channel. Three panel data linear regressions with local team fixed effects are carried out. The results indicate differences in the broadcast demand among tournaments. Marginal effects might help television channels, leagues and clubs finding optimal broadcast rights’ deals.
In Munich, a referendum on a bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics was held in November 2013 and failed. This study analyzes the determinants of the percent of favorable votes using secondary data from all 52 communities involved in the referendum. The evidence suggests that potential host communities tended to have larger vote shares in favor of putting in a bid as did communities with higher rates of unemployment. In communities with a high share of votes for the Green and the Leftist party in the federal state elections, the percent of favorable votes for the Olympic bid was significantly lower. Moreover, the negative effect of the number of hotel beds per capita suggests that voters were concerned with crowding-out of regular tourists during the Olympics. Local politicians and bidding committees could use this information to better understand the local population and to improve their support for hosting Olympic Games. © 2015 West Virginia University.