This article discusses the contemporary state of philanthropic foundations in Russia. It traces the evolution of Russian philanthropy from the Imperial period through the Soviet times and the upheavals of the 1990s to today. Historically, foundations lacked a legal footing, not only under socialism but also during the Tsarist Empire, and while a new legal framework was introduced in the 1990s, the political and economic turmoil of the decade prevented the emergence of notable foundations until the turn of the millennium. Since then, the Russian foundation sector has steadily been growing, featuring foundations related to large business fortunes and corporations as well as successful fundraising and local community foundations. Particularly, foundations tied to business interests and corporations still face expectations to contribute to social and other public services in the tradition of Soviet-era state enterprises. An important difference between Russian and American and other Western foundations is that Russian foundations typically do not have endowments, but operate on ongoing pass-through funds by the founder.
In the contemporary economy work is increasingly becoming freelance based and is also moving online. Open source software communities (OSS) are rapidly becoming arenas in which individuals identify, co-create, and realize opportunities through shared resources and expertise. Operating in a communal setting, these individuals, who we label open entrepreneurs, work and collaborate with members of their own open source community. We aim to investigate how open entrepreneurs are connected to other members of the communities in which they are involved and how their networks affect entrepreneurial processes. We are particularly interested in understanding how networked work benefits open entrepreneurs and how they work and collaborate with other community members. Our results suggest that open entrepreneurs through different types of networked work, not only can fulfill their profit motive in the short term but also in the long term as these networking activities facilitate the overall functioning of the community.
With rapid growth of online social network sites, the issue of health-related online communities and its social and behavioral implications has become increasingly important for public health. Unfortunately, online communities often become vehicles for promotion of pernicious misinformation, in particular, that HIV virus is a myth (AIDS denialism). This study seeks to explore online users’ behavior and interactions within AIDS-denialist community to identify and estimate the number of those, who potentially are most susceptible to AIDS-denialist arguments—“the risk group” in terms of becoming AIDS denialists. Social network analysis was used for examining the most numerous AIDS-denialist community (over 15,000 members) in the most popular Russian SNS “VK.com.” In addition, content analysis was used for collecting data on attitudes toward AIDS-denialist arguments and participants’ self-disclosed HIV status. Two data sets were collected to analyze friendship ties and communication interactions among community members. We have identified the core of online community—cohesive and dedicated AIDS denialists, and the risk group: users who communicate with core members, and, thus, can be more susceptible to the AIDS-denialist propaganda and their health behaviors (e.g., refusing treatment). Analysis allowed to significantly reduce the target audience for possible intervention campaigns and simultaneously increase the accuracy of determining the risk group composition.
Towards a Comparative Understanding of Foundations.