The problem of how signs acquire their meaning is longstanding in philosophy of language of the analytical tradition (Quine, Frege, Peirce, Wittgeinstein), as well the continental one (Saussure, Hjelmslev, Jacobson, Bloomfield). At present, most scholars are inclined either to point to the priority of objects over the system of signs, or to the system over the objects. However, neither version solves the task satisfactorily. On the one hand, we believe that the language and the world are external to each other and are independent from each other; but on the other hand, we cannot construct a model of language independent from the world (what does language denote, in that case?) and the world independent from language (how is a world is possible if it is not referenced?). This situation poses a problem. The Eigenform model can help shed the light on this problem and suggests coherent solution; this model shows how it is possible to overcome the ‘dilemma of preceding’ (of language to the world or the world to language). Similar to the dilemma of the preceding of observation (observer) to the world or observation (observer) to the world, the Eigenform model shows that neither referencing nor signified precede the other, but rather inter-condition each other. Thus, language creates the world of objects but is shaped by the world in turn. Unlike similar language model developed by L. Wittgenstein, Eigenform model stipulates the principle of the world-language generation in a complex system of involved and \ or mutual interpretations. The interpreter generates a meaning in the world, but itself, thereby forming an interpretation (in particular self-interpretation).
In this article it is shown that in some theories defending the non-reductive nature of the first-person perspective a not very consistent attitude to this perspective may be found. Such theories are related by the author to a so-called moderate naturalism. The article shows the difference between moderate and radical naturalism. Radical naturalism completely abandons the idea of subjectivity as unobservable from a third-person perspective. On the contrary, moderate naturalism defends the irreducibility of subjectivity, but believes subjectivity to be a part of the nature. As a case of moderate naturalism, the article considers the approaches of L. Baker and T. Metzinger. Using their approaches to the first-person perspective as an example, it is shown that in case of certain work strategies focused on the first-person perspective, it is possible that a so-called description error may appear, by which a description error of subjectivity – when it is placed in the world on the rights of a part of nature, according to the laws of which it exists – is understood. The logic of this error points to one of L. Wittgenstein's statements about the incorrect placement of the eye in the perspective of the eye view itself. If the first-person perspective is introduced as a point of view (or a point of observation), then its subsequent shift to the observation result area leads to description error. If there is no observation, as well as no viewpoint, we lose the very idea of first-person perspective and actually take the position of radical naturalism.
The article examines the role and place of faith in the concept of Vladimir Solovyov who is considered to be the creator of the first Russian philosophical system. The purpose of the article is to determine the epistemological and methodological significance of faith in Solovyov’s understanding as a special factor of cognition. In order to study this problem, a synthetic method of reconstruction of the thought of Solovyov as well as a method of philosophical analysis was used. First, Solovyov’s project of integral knowledge or free theosophy is presented, i. e. synthesis of philosophy, theology, and science. The suppositions of this concept are revealed and its polemical context is indicated, namely, Solovyov’s attempt to overcome the abstract or one-sided principles: reason, empirical experience, and faith in order to create an integral system that should unite all types of knowledge. In addition, philosophy as such corresponds to reason, science to experience, and theology to faith. The second part of the article is devoted to the epistemological aspects of faith in the concept of integral knowledge. It lies in the fact that each act of cognition begins with the assertion of the objective existence of its object, which Solovyov describes as faith in a broad sense of the word. Thus, faith has a universal significance as a necessary condition for the cognitive process. The third part of the article discusses the methodological aspect of faith as a key link in the system of integral knowledge. As a result, faith has a dominant role not only in theology, but in all spheres of knowledge, including philosophy and science. Thus, it is possible to conclude that there is no conflict between faith and reason; on the contrary, they complement each other. Solovyov’s position is still relevant nowadays.
The overview of E.M. Shilling’s materials stored in the scientific and historical archive of the GMIR demonstrates that in total they represent a complete block of field observations made by the researcher during his trips to the Caucasus in 1929-1940.
The historization of the methodological consciousness of a scientist (both in the field of natural science and in the field of humanitarian research) is becoming the most important factor of concrete scientific work. At the same time, the scientist’s awareness of the historical dimension of cognition and, accordingly, the historization of methodological reflection contains the possibility of philosophical and methodological conclusions capable of deforming science. In particular, references to history often serve as the basis for radical methodological relativism. The authors believe that the epistemological problematics arising in this context appeal to the topic of the historical self-awareness of the researcher, to the phenomenon of his selfawareness as a historical person and brings the cognitive aspects of such awareness into the focus. Besides that, in the field of philosophical and methodological research fell scientist’s reflections, expressed in some narrative about the history of the formation of his self-consciousness and motivation. The article demonstrates the epistemological perspective of the analysis of such reflections (scientist’s autobiographical narrative). In this article, the authors, appealing to the texts of historians, seek to show how through the prism of a narrative one can reveal the peculiarities of historicism in the reflection and self-consciousness of scientists and, in particular, analytically assess the cognitive risks generated by one or another direction of their self-consciousness. First of all, it is an assessment of the cognitive characteristics of self-deception. The article substantiates the idea that the interpretation of philosophical and methodological reflection as a narrative opens up the possibility for the effective application of cultural-historical epistemology in scientific research.
The article is devoted to the study of the miscellaneous aspects of Islamic religious architecture evolution in Europe in the 20-21 st centuries.
The paper discusses the causes of emergence and persistence of moral absolutism as an influential ethical and metаethical theory. The author claims that oversimplification of moral problems is closely related to their individualistic interpretations, which means that subject’s ethical choice may be analyzed apart from its social and naturalistic context. The article suggests the concept of local moral systems as a means to overcome moral absolutism. This concept denies existence of any distinct and unified moral entity and proposes existences of parallel and not necessarily correlated processes aimed at forming multileveled socio-biological regulations of behavior of members of some groups of individuals.
The intellectual heritage of thinkers of the Russian abroad today is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers of Russian philosophy of the first half of the 20th century. Although the author clarifies, one can sometimes hear that we are talking about philosophers of a kind of “second place”, since thinkers of the level of Berdyaev, Shestov, and Stepun are already quite fully and comprehensively represented in the relevant literature. The author of the article believes that it is not enough to limit oneself to only historical-philosophical academic interest in turning to the work of philosophers of this era. With great attention and breadth, sometimes anew, to the ideas of thinkers of the Russian abroad, we are forced to turn to the changing socio-spiritual situation of our time. The processes of globalization, the contacts of cultures, and civilizations make their heritage extremely relevant today. A striking example of this is the work of Pyotr Bitsilli. Based on several of Bitsilli’s works, and in particular on his article Nation and Language, the author emphasizes the specific relevance of the methodological strategy of the philosopher and historian. In addition, the author reveals another specific aspect of Bitsilli’s methodology – the interdisciplinary nature of his research. It is the breadth of intellectual horizons, as well as in-depth knowledge in the field of philosophy, history, and linguistics, that distinguish Bitsilli. His work is gaining particular semantic fullness at present, when the themes of the nation, language, culture, as well as their correlation, are given new perspectives in modern socio-cultural dynamics. The author of the article suggests that hermeneutic and narrative approaches allow them to acquire specific features in the philosophical interpretations of Bitsilli.
Research is devoted to the features of development of Orthodoxy in the province which developed during the pre-revolutionary, Soviet and Post-Soviet periods. Th e main research question has two parts: whether it is possible to speak about the orthodox Renaissance in the province since 1990 and whether there are features which are steadily reproduced in historical process in local Orthodoxy. In the analysis of an orthodox community and clergy a number of factors is considered: peripheral situation and number of peoples in the region, influence of atheistic propaganda and secular system education, co-existence of other traditional and new religions. Two policies of orthodox life — ordinary believers and clergy are considered. The features of an orthodox community are characterized when using archival documents, supervision on liturgy during 2014, the carried-out questioning and two focus groups. Th e orthodox priesthood of region is characterized using archival documents, the content analysis of the regional press and sites, some interviews.
Narrative both as a phenomenon and practice is constituted in philosophical methodology and the humanities due to non-classical philosophical projects in the 20th century. Ultimately, it is the fundamental theoretical and methodological problematics, in which the word is considered as the source of cognition (E. Husserl, M. Heidegger, P. Ricoeur, G. Shpet), that become essential for the following comprehension of history, culture, and science through the prism of narrative. Today, the problematics of the narrative is gaining more and more attention from representatives of different scientific disciplines (methodologists of science, psychologists, philologists, sociologists, jurists, historians, culturologists) who comprehend the influence of cultural factors on a scientist’s motivation, on the ways of functioning and translation of knowledge in society and also on forming and saving the ecology of culture as an exceptional phenomenon, which emphasizes significance and diversity of the narrative approach in modern conditions. In this context, V. S. Stepin’s philosophical and methodological developments, in particular, the ideas of “human-sizedness” and “human-sized system” (“human-sized complexes”) formulated by him take on a specific dimension. The article suggests that an appeal to narrative themes in a socio-cultural and ecological context makes it possible to fix the role and place of a person in human-sized systems, as well as to clarify the boundaries of these systems. It is precisely about the ecological culture of a technogenic civilization: civilization is impossible without culture, without value-based, aesthetic and humanitarian components. The narrative is included in the study of the human-sized system, since the person himself is immersed in the cultural situation of the narrative.
This article is devoted to the problem of the deep conceptual kinship between the metaphysical systems of F.Schelling and E.v.Hartmann. The author compares their doctrines concerning self-realization of the unconscious absolute in mankind, the volitional and logical basis of the absolute, and some other ideas. On these grounds he discovers that a number of important concepts and ideas of von Hartmann’s philosophy of the unconscious have their roots in Schelling’s late philosophical works. This permits us to consider von Hartmann’s thought as a particular modification of Neo-Schellingianism and inscribe it in the wide circle of systems close to German idealism.