Regional authorities consider the expediency of developing a new cargo transportation hub in the region in which it would provide transshipment services. It is considered that each transportation operator working in the region will use these services only if they are competitive with the currently existing ones. This competitiveness for a particular cargo means that the total transportation tariff for moving this cargo does not exceed (substantially or in principle) the (minimal) currently existing one as a result of including a transshipment via the hub in the transportation scheme for the cargo. A verifiable sufficient condition for the transshipment service competitiveness is proposed. Its verification consists of establishing the solvability of a system of linear inequalities being part of the system of constraints in the problem of finding optimal competitive transshipment tariffs for a set of cargoes expected to be moved via the hub. The latter problem is formulated as a quadratic programming one.
This study concerns the determinants of Russian MPA students’ work preference. The authors explore the relationship between the image of a civil servant, the pre-employment work expectations, and the MPA students’ intentions to work for government. The data are collected from four Russian universities by surveying 203 MPA students. The authors factor analyzed the descriptors of the civil servant image and the work expectations and applied logistic regression analysis to predict the probability of the MPA students’ choice of public employment.
This article provides estimates of a social discount rate (SDR) to inform government policy in Russia. We find that a SDR should be determined for the whole country as well as for particular regions. We apply the social rate of time preferences approach and estimate values for public sector projects at national and regional levels. All calculations are based on data from the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia. Findings help the decision-making process in the public sector of economics. Suggestions are useful for Russia as well as for post-Soviet countries and other developing economies with regional diversity.
This paper estimates the impact of corruption on the incentives of procurers to maintain honest competition in tenders. Customers, who procure for themselves, and Agencies, who procure for the customers in their region are considered. Basing on a large dataset of open auctions conducted by Russian regional-level authorities in 2011, the analysis shows that in highly corrupt regions, Agencies fail to arrange competitive tenders and most of auctions have one bidder. Customers attract more bidders for large contracts, but rebates are usually low. Therefore, procurement centralization may reduce the corruption of Customers, but cannot solve the problem of low competition.
Among the recent or revisited assumptions in the literature, the “dependent capitalism” hypothesis has met growing interest and relevance in the context of the 2008 economic and financial crisis. The purpose of the present article is first to expand the scope of the dependence analysis to the Balkan countries, both members and non-members of the EU, and second, to demonstrate that dependence also appears in these countries in a differentiated way through another institutional form, not included in the initial theoretical framework of Hall and Soskice, monetary regimes. A monetary regime can be considered as a structuring institutional form, expressing the power relations between national and foreign actors. In the dependent capitalism case, where foreign capital prevails and the trade balance dynamics is determined by the capital account, one could expect that monetary regimes would be implemented in a way to protect the capital and interests of foreign investors in the long term, hence to delegate monetary sovereignty to the investor’s country of origin. In the first part of the paper, some theoretical and methodological aspects of the dependent capitalism in post-socialist countries and of the specific monetary regime on which it is based, are discussed. Then, in the second part, the dependence analysis is illustrated by the case studies of monetary regimes in the Balkans during the period from 1990 to 2015. © 2020, © 2020 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
A decision-support tool for estimating the volume of investment in developing a regional energy/freight transportation infrastructure is proposed. The tool provides the estimates of the required investment volume and those of the expected amount of revenue that the infrastructure functioning may generate. These estimates are key ones in negotiations with private investors on forming a potential public–private partnership to finance the infrastructure development. The tool includes (a) a mathematical model underlying the formulations of three optimization problems on its basis depending on the information available to the decision-makers—two mixed programming problems and a minimax problem, which is proven to be reducible to a mixed programming one with all integer variables being Boolean, (b) a standard software package for solving mixed programming problems, and (c) a software package for processing data. The results of testing the proposed tool on sets of model data taken from open sources are discussed.
The problem of developing a chain of charging stations for electric vehicles along a highway crossing a geographic region is considered. A tool for determining an optimal structure of this chain is proposed. The use of the tool, particularly, allows one to estimate the cost of (and thus the needed volume of investment for) developing the chain proceeding from a) the demand for electricity in the chain, b) the existing technological and legal requirements to the structure of such a chain, c) the expected production capacities of all the types of renewable sources of energy, which can effectively be deployed at each charging station from the chain, and d) the cost of the equipment to be acquired and installed at each charging station to provide the chain customers with electricity to be received by each charging station in the chain from both electrical grids and renewable sources of energy, the cost of maintaining this equipment, and the cost of operating it. The problem under consideration is formulated as a nonlinear mixed programming one of maximizing the minimum function of a sum of several linear and two bilinear functions of vector arguments. It is proven that under certain natural and verifiable assumptions, finding solutions to this problem turns out to be reducible to solving either a mixed programming problem with linear constraints or a linear programming problem and an integer programming one. For a set of model data, an illustrative example of formulating and solving the problem under consideration is provided, and the way to use the tool in negotiations with potential investors in the project is discussed.
Using public sector employment and corruption perception data for 72 countries across the world, this article demonstrates that despite common notion countries with “smaller” governments do not tend to have lower corruption. Under general assumptions, one can demonstrate that there is an optimal size of public sector employment corresponding to the highest capital intensity. The model has several implications: lower optimal sizes of governments for labor intensive countries and higher sizes for capital intensive ones, possibility to reduce corruption paying a cost of suboptimal output, and a higher “price” of an oversized government for labor intensive countries.
This study is focused on the problem of the mismatch of competencies of Masters of Public Administration (MPA) graduates in Russia and current Russian public servants. A mixed methods approach was used to analyze quantitative (n = 734) and qualitative data about the real-world competencies of local, regional, and federal government officials in comparison to what MPA graduates get from their education. The comparison of competency models of MPA graduates and government officials indicated that the most of the competencies are useful in public administration practice, but there is still lot to change in the approach of compiling the content of MPA educational standards and educational programs.
The article introduces the improtance of studies of Public Administration in Russia.
Our knowledge of associations is scarce, requiring a multidisciplinary approach that has been rarely usedtoinvestigatethismultifacetedphenomenonthatcutsacrosstheconfinesofasinglediscipline. This study investigates the motives that drive the founding of associations in the Russian context, analyzing original data and applying a mixed-methods research design. An empirical typology of motivesisdevelopedtoobtainamoreaccuraterangeoftime-andvalue-drivenmotivesbeyondwhat is currently understood. The findings shed light on the complexity and multidimensionality of the motivational factors driving the establishment of associations in a transitional context.
This article analyses how the intensification of centralized monitoring within public organization may impact incentives for efficiency in those divisions of the organization that have different levels of financial autonomy. The efficiency of divisions’ activities was estimated through their procurement effectiveness. All the divisions were classified as non-commercial units (NCU) funded by the government or as income earning units (IEU) operating in the market and having broader financial autonomy. The results show that under standard monitoring, the IEU had more efficient procurements compared to the NCU. After intensification of centralized monitoring, the differences in performance became insignificant. These findings show that stricter monitoring is efficient for organizations with soft budget constraints, while for organizations with hard budget constraints it is preferable to use more flexible regulations.
This study examines the latest tendencies in Russian research on public administration (2010–14) as it appears in Russian academic journals. The study considers the subjects of articles, their methodological features, and the characteristics of contributors. Revealing problems in public administration research in Russia contributes both to the development of Russian science and to the ongoing international discussion regarding the need for better research on public administration and state policy. By drawing attention to the shortcomings and weaknesses of Russian public administration research, the study is meant to advance the current discussion on ways to strengthen the quality of policy research around the world.
Relationships between foundations and the government in the United States have long been difficult with government attitudes ranging from hostile to at best indifferent in the past. American foundations have long claimed innovation as a distinctive function to perform in society in order to preserve their legitimacy. One hundred years after the rise of the large-scale American philanthropic foundation, however, the relationships between foundations and government have come into flux. Between demands from fiscally-strapped local governments and a new openness of state and federal governments to develop collaborative relationships, a variety of public-philanthropic partnerships have emerged that question the traditional roles and distribution of labor between philanthropy and the state. This article traces the historical development of the government/foundation relationship and discusses its changing nature using recession-induced ad hoc partnerships, the emergence of foundation liaison offices, and the Obama Administration’s Social Innovation Fund and Investing in Innovation program as examples.
How do public-private partnerships (PPPs) differ from traditional public procurement and what role should governments play in them? This article views PPPs as collaborative projects with imperfect information between parties. Typical public procurement contracts tackle asymmetric information problems yet limit feasibility of projects: some are not profitable enough to ensure private party participation. Partnership improves feasibility; this justifies PPPs as a form of public good provision and demonstrates how they differ from procurement. Four UK and Russian cases of PPP projects are analyzed within the above framework, focusing on types of contracts, contributions of both partners, and specific partnership elements.
Relationships between foundations and the government in the United States have long been difficult with government attitudes ranging from hostile to at best indifferent in the past. American foundations have long claimed innovation as a distinctive function to perform in society in order to preserve their legitimacy. One hundred years after the rise of the large-scale American philanthropic foundation, however, the relationships between foundations and government have come into flux. Between demands from fiscally-strapped local governments and a new openness of state and federal governments to develop collaborative relationships, a variety of public-philanthropic partnerships have emerged that question the traditional roles and distribution of labor between philanthropy and the state. This paper traces the historical development of the government/foundation relationship and discusses its changing nature using recession-induced ad hoc partnerships, the emergence of foundation liaison offices, and the Obama Administration’s Social Innovation Fund and Investing in Innovation program as examples.
This research focuses on parents’ participation in their children’s education via self-organizing through non-profit organizations (NPOs). The aim of this article is to uncover the factors which have an impact on Russian parenting organizations participating in collective coproduction in schooling. Quantitative analysis revealed three groups of explanatory variables: a) the “economic” variables, namely GRP per capita and poverty rate; b) a “high status” of a school; and c) variables capturing the “federal district effect” on the probability of collective coproduction. Results of the quantitative analysis highlight the significant discrepancies in regional conditions for emerging NPOs in coproduction in schooling.
The combination of two reforms in Russia, reform of public-sector entities and of public procurement, enables us to estimate the results of a transition from rigid to more flexible regulations in public procurement (PP). We consider two public universities in 2011–2012. The procurements of one university were regulated by rigid Federal Law during the entire period; the procurements of the other university were regulated by Federal Law until June 2011 and then by a more flexible regulation. Using the difference-in-differences methodology, we assess how the transition to this new regulation affects the main PP parameters. We show that more flexible regulation leads to a decline in bid competition but improves contract execution.
The projects considered in these papers describe energy problems that public administrations face. Approaches proposed by the authors of the papers to solving all these problems are based on special mathematical models underlying corresponding decision-support systems. Helping such systems penetrate the field of public administration management is one of the major goals of this Special Issue.
This paper presents a survey-based methodological approach to detect potential opportunism by counterparts who are linked with agents through contractual relations. The methodology proposes asking counterparts about attitudes toward some behaviors of agents, which are undesirable from the principal and benevolent counterpart perspective. The approach identifies the potential opportunism of counterparts based on the intensity with which they justify such behavior and provide unrealistic assessments of commonly known problems. The approach is especially important in a situation where the rules are inconsistent with reality and the principal can no longer disentangle the benevolent and opportunistic behavior of the agent. The authors test this approach by conducting a survey of procurers and suppliers of public procurement contracts in Russia.
Using public procurement to foster innovation is a widespread practice worldwide. However, in Russia public procurement has had no significant impact on developing innovation. Empirical research with expert interviews and qualitative and quantitative data analysis has revealed the reasons for poor performance to promote innovation, including tough anti-trust and anti-corruption rules, limited use of tenders as well as “life-cycle cost” criteria, and poor management by the procuring agencies. The analysis revealed the contradiction between the rules designed for fighting corruption and monopolies and the need to stimulate innovation through procurement.