The article considers the problems of memory and representation of the past in British literature on the example of E. Waugh’s novel “Brideshead revisited”. Narratological approach explains the focus on the mechanism of recollecting the past, the subjects of recollection and the temporal system. The narrator and characters are compared and contrasted in terms of their narrative presentation of the past. The past, present and future in the novel are demonstrated to be of relative, permeable nature. Several models of temporal relations are created.
The article suggests a genre model for novel-myth which can be discerned in «The God of Small Things» by Arundhati Roy. The author argues against devising the model solely on the basis of parallels between the content of the novel and mythological images and motifs. Instead such mythomodeling categories as time, recollection and reader are investigated. It is demonstrated how the discrepancy between the time of story and discourse (G. Genette) defines the mythical nature of characters and their relations. The interplay of pro- and retrospections resulting from the second of these categories allows to define the novel as the ritual of recollection (M. Eliade). As a result, the reader in the novel becomes the participant of this ritual and is isomorphic in this role to the characters.
The article elaborates on the concepts of narratology which has of late become extremely influental in humanitarian disciplines. In Virginia Woolf's novel "To the Lighthouse" the incorporated narrative levels are shown to be isomorphic in terms of their dialogic relations. Communication between the characters is similar to communication between narrator and narratee (as seen in the composition structure of the novel) and between implicit author and implicit reader. The dialogue in the novel relies on the word pronounced and heard. In the aspect of composition it is represented by compositional parts simultaneously taking place. When this kind of dialogue fails as miscommunication, it is replaced with onthological unity behind the physical word and directorientation towards the listener/reader. The article's innovation is analysing the novel of modernism in the light of Bakhtin's theory of dialogue.
Theory on characterization in fiction pays little attention to metaphor. One exception is literary grotesque, a technique close to Wyndham Lewis’s satire and the author’s conception thereof, both of which are considered in the present article. Using the example provided by one of the characters of Lewis’s satire The Apes of God (1930), we propose that metaphor functions in its characterizations in essential accordance with Lewis’s theory and conclude that by reifying the characters, the grotesque metaphors put their hollowness in stark contrast to the narrator’s language creativity in a thoroughly modernist way.
The article deals with transformation of Modernist tradition in the 1930s English novel represented by Anthony Powell’s “Afternoon Men” (1931). Such typological features of Modernism as epistemological doubt, mythological universalism, cyclic worldview, hermetic character of the fictitious world remain although certain themes, motives, ideas and images of Modernism are parodied and transferred into the sphere of mass culture.
Investigating the novel which was undeservedly neglected by critics allows to add to the research of Modernist evolution which remained quite vibrant outside its classic period in the 1920s.
Michael Ondaatje’s “English Patient” enjoyed fame among Russian readers and insufficient attention among Russian scholars. The article considers the postmodernist principle of permeable borders as the basis of the novel’s poetics of memory. Permeable borders are analysed on the level of spatial and then temporal composition. These are then shown in their interdependence with the images of the main characters. Four characters’ scenarios of self-identification are described in their relations to the past and the present. Almaśy’s memory scenario is proven to form the model for the whole novel’s narrative. All these elements of the novel’s poetics are brought together to form the model for the reader’s behavior as a participant of the fictitious world.
The article focuses on theoretical considerations of visual image, visual perception and visuality in a number of literary and art studies and conceptions of psychology of perception in Anglo-American tradition. It argues for the topicality of visuality investigation in literary studies as a part of the general «pictorial turn» across disciplines and suggests the sources of problems and conceptual differences inherent in such approach.
The article provides an analysis of ekphrasis in the poem "Conversation among the Ruins" by the American poet and writer Sylvia Plath. In the poem, inspired by de Chirico's painting of the same name, ekphrasis is observed at different levels, starting with the title. At the same time, the reader observes not a detailed description of the painting and the architectural elements presented on it, but an emotion, a dynamic plot unfolding in the creative consciousness of the poetess. The poem is a traditional text for Plath, where the richness of visual images is closely intertwined with autobiographical motifs.