The article presents a sociological analysis of the radio audience for classical music “Orpheus”. The continuous research for 10 years in Moscow managed to increase the audience of “Orpheus” by 2.6 times. It turned out that the absolute value of the audience “Orpheus” in Moscow is ahead of all radios of classical music, which were compared. Study of the radio audience for classical music requires a very sensitive approach, taking into account many nuances.
Data journalism is based on data used both as a source of a story and as a proof for facts stated in journalistic investigations. Core principles of journalistic work are changing under the influence of data: working with data, acquiring datasets, verifying data, analyzing and presenting it in data stories is drastically different from traditional journalistic methods, while simultaneously continuing to be an organic part of journalistic research within the existing framework of journalism standards and ethical requirements. Fact-checking in data journalism is often limited to verifying correct math and analysis methods in data, whereas other factors defining the correctness and ethics of a journalistic product are ignored. Those include assessing the sources of data, methods and reasons of data collection, correctness of interpretation, contextual dependencies of data, correctness of visual representation of data analysis results, etc. Scientists are expanding research into the epistemological differences of data journalism from traditional journalistic practice, noting such distinct features as creating personal knowledge and its acceptance by the audience under the influence of data-driven practices and co-creation and crowd verification of data-based investigations. At the same time, academic research also focuses on data journalism fact-checking as a mere technological process of revision and comparison of calculations, not as a holistic system of data-story verification on multiple interconnected planes from technology to ethics. In this article, the author tries to fill the existing gap between academic research and actual data fact-checking practices in newsrooms by scrutinizing and evaluating various approaches to data-story fact-checking in a number of media, and consequently defining white spaces in the data fact-checking workflows. Lack of professional standards in the area allows for lower quality of publications, as well as publishing wrongly interpreted or presented data, whether by mistake or by intent. This prompted the author’s original view of fact-checking in data journalism as a system of consistent multilevel assessment.
This article describes regularities of television audience migrations. the author gives a definition of television audience migrations and results the author's original classification of this category highlighting extra-channel, interchannel, and intra-channel types of televsion audience migrations. It is emphasized that a detailed study of television audience migrations has become possible after the introduction in the industry practice the automated audience measurement systems in which measurements using representative sample of TV viewer, made at a high frequency, and data users receive contunually one-minute agregated parameters of the audience, including the switching on and off the television sets (i.e. parameters of extra-channel migrations) and the transition from channel to channel (i.e. parameters of iter-channel migrations). Through studying the television audience migrations were discovered effects of rapid movement from channel to channel, including zapping, flipping, serfing et al. These discoveries allowed to form the concept of a television viewing clipping style. The author argues that the clipping style of TV viewing is stimulated, and to a large extent due to the advertising cutaways that makes a significant part of the audience to turn off the TV or switch to other channels, then often to come back to abandoned channel. In the general migration picture on TV the extra-channel migrations dominate, and comparatively rarely observed transitions from channel to channel.
The article gives the narrative analysis of the women images of three television series that cover the political reality of USA - “Political Animals”, “Madame Secretary” and “House of Cards”. They have been chosen in connection to the indication of the possible sponsoring of them from Clinton. The author investigates the parallels between the screen reality of these television series and the current political reality of USA and one of its actors - presidential candidate for the 2016 election Hillary Clinton. The topicality of the research of reflections of political realities in the screen-related arts grows in consideration of the rising significance of the conception of “mediatization” of politics. Basing herself on the approaches towards “mediatization” and its effects, and also building her theory on the foundations of Russian researchers of literary subjects from the realm of literary studies and American researchers of “storytelling,”, the author gives a brief overview of the interaction between stories and screens through the history of human society. This kind of approach gives the author the ability to show how the screen realities and storytelling can have impact on current political reality in the era of “mediatization of everything” and “post-truth politics”.The following narrative analysis of female figures in the aforementioned television serials related to politics makes it possible to observe a strong embedment of feminist issues in the American screen culture. The author demonstrates and analyzes the features of the main heroines of the analyzed television series which make it possible to conclude about their similarity to the figure of presidential candidate from the Democratic Party for the 2016 election, Hillary Clinton. Those parallels include her political experience as the Secretary of State, of her husband being the former president of the USA (and the experience of being the first lady of the country), of her preference of women for her assistants in the electron campaign, as well as the general features of Hillary Clinton.Because it would not be possible to analyze the figure of the main heroine without analyzing a complex of characters from the serial movies, certain conclusions also relate to the general features of political reality reflected in the screen cultures - the latter may include examinations of the figures of Russia and the Islamic Caliphate as the political opponents of the USA in the “House of Cards” serial.
The article analyzes the methodology of procedural rhetoric (I. Bogost) as applied to transmedia storytelling, making it possible to detect its specific network characteristics. With the development of digital technologies, the perception of transmedia works changes from narrative reception to interaction with the space. In this regard, a problem emerges associated with perception and analysis of such practices possessing spatial characteristics, since the traditional (i.e. linguistic) approach appears to have limited applicability and does not allow to research these objects in their entirety. To research this space constructed in users’ practices within the framework of procedural rhetoric, it is proposed to analyze individual operations (actions of a transmedia project participant) and map the resulting operational chains. Therefore, a vast array of data is created, combining all elements of a transmedia work into a single space, regardless of media format or media platform they are presented in...
Presidential New Year’s greetings are interesting in a way that all the major TV channels simultaneously broadcast the same thing. How is the audience distributed between the channels during these minutes of the annual maximum of the TV viewing? The audience of V.V. Putin-«First channel» D.A. Medvedev-«Russia 1», NTV. In New Year congratulations of V.V. Putin, most used categories are «year», «dear», «friends», «Russia», «own», D. A. Medvedev-«close», «be», «all», «you», «do», «wish», «love».
The article discusses the features of mobile communication in the student environment in the context of socio-cultural transformations generated by technological progress. In the first part of the article the authors briefly describe the history of mobile communication. Trends in sociohumanitarian research in the 20th-21st centuries with the emergence and widespread use of new electronic means of communication-radio, television, Internet, mobile communication-are also briefly considered. In all cases, four stages of socio-cultural adaptation of information and communication innovations in relationship with young people are mentioned: 1) attempts to understand new media as a means of learning; 2) detection and study of problem areas created by new media in relations with the young generation; 3) development of “counteractions” against arising negative phenomenon at the level of the introduction of legal norms and attempts to organize ethical self-regulation of new branches in the media industry; 4) introduction of aspects of “new literacy” as elements of education in terms of information literacy, media literacy, digital literacy, mobile literacy, etc. The second part of the article presents some data of sociological studies, which clarify the features of the use of mobile communication by Russian students, in particular, using a smartphone. Data from three surveys conducted in 2018 are analyzed the study of the company “Mediascope”, as well as surveys of students from two Moscow universities-GITR and HSE. Surveys have shown that the use of mobile communication among Russian students is close to 100%, and the scale of use of smartphones is much higher than simple mobile phones: according to “Mediascope”, 91.3% of students have smartphones and only 6.9% use mobile phones without access to the Internet. Among the respondents of GITR and HSE, 100% of the students had smartphones. The use of mobile communication by Russian students is characterized by wide functionality the total number of identified functions amounted to more than 20, most of which are related to the Internet. The intensity of inclusion in information and communication processes varies significantly between students who have a smartphone and those who do not. Students who own smartphones are much more active in using the Internet. According to “Mediascope”, the percentage of those who used the Internet, in all the marked functional positions, was higher than among those who used simple mobile phones. The biggest difference is in visiting social media (73.8% vs. 40.6%), listening to and downloading music (48.6% vs. 19.3%), viewing and uploading photos (48.5% vs. 20.1%), watching and downloading videos (42.5% vs. 23.7%), and playing games (24.0% vs. 9.1%). It is concluded that the use of mobile Internet contributes to the further strengthening of the audiovisual component of mass culture.
This article is about the interpretation of national history in the context of universal history, which was begun by Karamzin and continued by Granovsky and Kliuchevskoi. The author is convinced that only with the participation of Russian civil society it is possible to create a new narrative of history, cultural tradition - the basis of the social agreement, the consent of the society concerning the past, present and future of Russia, that will allow to study the past not for the sake of the past but as a living part of the cultural experience of the country.
In the article, the authors make an attempt to compare the processes of media consumption and media use in the Russian countryside in the early 20st and early 21th centuries, in particular the problems of the rural people learning the new language of screen arts. Today, the media consumption of the Russian village is not actively explored, so empirical material based on five expeditions to the Russian countryside in the period from 2012 to 2018 is of particular importance. The materials on the 20th century are archival documents and testimonies of the participants in the cinema of the village. Based on the difference between oral and written cultures, the authors show that, both in the beginning of the 20th and both in the beginning of the 21st century the villagers lack media literacy to perceive the diversity of the language of screen arts. And it is compensated by the figure of the commentator. But if at the beginning of the 20th century the commentator is located next to the cine-camera, then in the 21st century it is already placed inside the screen. The article suggests that a modern TV presenter, placed inside the screen, is a remediation of the commentator who conducted explanatory work among villagers in the early 20th century in the Soviet cinema process. At the same time, the commentator's figure keeps the Russian village from forming a polymedia environment, since the choice of content is still limited by insufficient media literacy.
The modern way of living is permeated with total digital medialization. This process leads to the simplification and acceleration of presentation of meaningful narrative. The speed of generation of meaning has reached such an extent that the presentation of meanings has no need of any traces of such presentation (snapchat). Modern art is hyperrealistic. It does not reflect or denote reality and does not provide reference to it—it directly presents a new reality. its signifiers have no need for the signified, as they are not narrative, but performative. This requires not “lengthy thoughts” (reasoning and justification of understanding) from the viewer, listener or reader but reaction, i.e., assessments and actions (“like, ban and buy”). The clip (mosaic) consciousness turns into the gaming variety in response to a situation set in advance by a certain algorithm. At the same time, emotional experience is associated not so much with the position, as directly with a quick (automatic) response to the situation, which can be qualified as one of the aspects of the “new animality”. Digitized reality has no need of museums, theaters, cinemas or libraries, because it replaces them all. Moreover, the viewer, the reader and the listener are part of this algorithmic reality, and not just the users of the corresponding options.
“The Screen of Politics,” i.e. the presentation of political life on the media screens is being increasingly transformed to a continuously greater degree into the format of a spectacle and entertainment. Three accentuations are made in study of this issue. The first accentuation is connected with predominantly examining the Russian experience of presentation of political life on the screen media culture. This experience is intensively transformed, therefore its comprehension is important not only in the actual context, but also for subsequent systematization. The second emphasis is made on the style of positioning and promotion of the personal brands of contemporary Russian politicians in the media space. The third focus is stipulated by the emotional component of the presentation of contemporary political life in the Russian screen culture. That emotional context, in particular, is what determines the estimative relationships of meaning-making. At the same time, emphasis is placed on transmission of intolerance and aggression towards political opponents, or also their derision. On the one hand, the tendency towards the simplification of emotional narratives reduces political participation to an even greater degree to passive consumption of a readymade spectacle, presenting new opportunities to “screen politics,” mass political manipulation. On the other hand, it involves extra efforts and a search for forms of real political participation.
Aesthetization is the concept of the theory and practice for understanding reality through non-utilitarian perceptions and experiences that go beyond ordinary experience. This is the basis for the attractiveness of both artifacts of artistic creation and art as a whole – as a socio-cultural practice. The twentieth century brought the expansion of aesthetization into the sphere of everyday experience – up to mass consumption and public policy. However, today the situation has changed radically – everyday practice itself has appeared stranded on the screens of computer monitors and gadgets. Contemporary screen culture contributes heavily to a further radical transformation of aestheticization. These are two interconnected processes. The first process is associated with a change in emphasis in the translation of the content of artifacts: from the translation of a stable social significance to the fixation and translation of fluid personal emotions and experiences. The second process is associated with the acceleration of such translations, which are hardly accessible for reflection and reflection. The result is a reduction of the presentation of social life experience, his insight and understanding to the digitized data stream. Thus, the aesthetization interpretation is a serious challenge today: or aesthetization is this data stream on the screens of monitors and gadgets that make the reality "strange"; or the dates stream desubjectivation eliminates aesthetization. Thus, on the one hand, the humanitarian expertize task becomes urgent for comprehension these processes. On the other hand, if the whole world is a field of artistic comprehension, the current life presentation technologies allow us to raise the question about the revival of the parrhesia institution as a personal responsibility for participating in this presentations stream.
The article is devoted to the phenomenon of vernacular photography of ruins and related images in modern Russian-language social media. The flowering of this phenomenon occurred in the 2010s and today we can discern it in all aspects. The author analyzes the community of «Aesthetics god’s damn nowhere», created in 2014 and very popular in modern network culture. We used a method of observing and analyzing content based on the theory of signs of C. Pearce and R. Crauss, the concept of Studium and Punctum by Roland Barth, the concept of the cliché of M. McLuhan and W. Watson. The proposed optics allows us to consider the practice of photographing and viewing photographs as a game. As a result, the main games in which users play with community content are identified. So, the following games with the camera are found: the search for old signs in the ordinary, the search for connections of the old and the new, the attraction of travels to distant abandoned places, the attraction of discoveries of distant inhabited places. Games with a photo on the screen: criticism of what is happening in the country, guessing the place and time of shooting, recognizing the native, searching for allusions, dispute about the etalon «f**king nowhere». The subsequent expansion of these games, in which the images of the ruins become an archetype, which is split into cliches, is associated with amateur drawing and collage. Among these games: the romanticizing of unhappy love and loneliness, the sentimentality of comfort and reminiscences and criticism of socio-political issues. Considering the signs through which authors and viewers interact, we come to the conclusion that, through the indexation of the old in images there occurs the existential experience of the oscillation between the old and the new, life and death, subjective, individual. In this you can find Punctum in photos of ruins, which is difficult to reflect, pronounce, which causes controversy among community members. The symbolic aspect is often associated more with the Studium of photographs. Thus, the global historical narrative is destroyed, the past, the present and the future are no longer connected in a single chain, but grow out of individual private memories, stories, comments. The research showed that the popularity of the aesthetization of ruins in the modern network culture could be associated with a crisis of identity and a rethinking of relations with the past in the post-Soviet space.