This article describes regularities of television audience migrations. the author gives a definition of television audience migrations and results the author's original classification of this category highlighting extra-channel, interchannel, and intra-channel types of televsion audience migrations. It is emphasized that a detailed study of television audience migrations has become possible after the introduction in the industry practice the automated audience measurement systems in which measurements using representative sample of TV viewer, made at a high frequency, and data users receive contunually one-minute agregated parameters of the audience, including the switching on and off the television sets (i.e. parameters of extra-channel migrations) and the transition from channel to channel (i.e. parameters of iter-channel migrations). Through studying the television audience migrations were discovered effects of rapid movement from channel to channel, including zapping, flipping, serfing et al. These discoveries allowed to form the concept of a television viewing clipping style. The author argues that the clipping style of TV viewing is stimulated, and to a large extent due to the advertising cutaways that makes a significant part of the audience to turn off the TV or switch to other channels, then often to come back to abandoned channel. In the general migration picture on TV the extra-channel migrations dominate, and comparatively rarely observed transitions from channel to channel.
The article gives the narrative analysis of the women images of three television series that cover the political reality of USA - “Political Animals”, “Madame Secretary” and “House of Cards”. They have been chosen in connection to the indication of the possible sponsoring of them from Clinton. The author investigates the parallels between the screen reality of these television series and the current political reality of USA and one of its actors - presidential candidate for the 2016 election Hillary Clinton. The topicality of the research of reflections of political realities in the screen-related arts grows in consideration of the rising significance of the conception of “mediatization” of politics. Basing herself on the approaches towards “mediatization” and its effects, and also building her theory on the foundations of Russian researchers of literary subjects from the realm of literary studies and American researchers of “storytelling,”, the author gives a brief overview of the interaction between stories and screens through the history of human society. This kind of approach gives the author the ability to show how the screen realities and storytelling can have impact on current political reality in the era of “mediatization of everything” and “post-truth politics”.The following narrative analysis of female figures in the aforementioned television serials related to politics makes it possible to observe a strong embedment of feminist issues in the American screen culture. The author demonstrates and analyzes the features of the main heroines of the analyzed television series which make it possible to conclude about their similarity to the figure of presidential candidate from the Democratic Party for the 2016 election, Hillary Clinton. Those parallels include her political experience as the Secretary of State, of her husband being the former president of the USA (and the experience of being the first lady of the country), of her preference of women for her assistants in the electron campaign, as well as the general features of Hillary Clinton.Because it would not be possible to analyze the figure of the main heroine without analyzing a complex of characters from the serial movies, certain conclusions also relate to the general features of political reality reflected in the screen cultures - the latter may include examinations of the figures of Russia and the Islamic Caliphate as the political opponents of the USA in the “House of Cards” serial.
This article is about the interpretation of national history in the context of universal history, which was begun by Karamzin and continued by Granovsky and Kliuchevskoi. The author is convinced that only with the participation of Russian civil society it is possible to create a new narrative of history, cultural tradition - the basis of the social agreement, the consent of the society concerning the past, present and future of Russia, that will allow to study the past not for the sake of the past but as a living part of the cultural experience of the country.
“The Screen of Politics,” i.e. the presentation of political life on the media screens is being increasingly transformed to a continuously greater degree into the format of a spectacle and entertainment. Three accentuations are made in study of this issue. The first accentuation is connected with predominantly examining the Russian experience of presentation of political life on the screen media culture. This experience is intensively transformed, therefore its comprehension is important not only in the actual context, but also for subsequent systematization. The second emphasis is made on the style of positioning and promotion of the personal brands of contemporary Russian politicians in the media space. The third focus is stipulated by the emotional component of the presentation of contemporary political life in the Russian screen culture. That emotional context, in particular, is what determines the estimative relationships of meaning-making. At the same time, emphasis is placed on transmission of intolerance and aggression towards political opponents, or also their derision. On the one hand, the tendency towards the simplification of emotional narratives reduces political participation to an even greater degree to passive consumption of a readymade spectacle, presenting new opportunities to “screen politics,” mass political manipulation. On the other hand, it involves extra efforts and a search for forms of real political participation.
The article is devoted to the phenomenon of vernacular photography of ruins and related images in modern Russian-language social media. The flowering of this phenomenon occurred in the 2010s and today we can discern it in all aspects. The author analyzes the community of «Aesthetics god’s damn nowhere», created in 2014 and very popular in modern network culture. We used a method of observing and analyzing content based on the theory of signs of C. Pearce and R. Crauss, the concept of Studium and Punctum by Roland Barth, the concept of the cliché of M. McLuhan and W. Watson. The proposed optics allows us to consider the practice of photographing and viewing photographs as a game. As a result, the main games in which users play with community content are identified. So, the following games with the camera are found: the search for old signs in the ordinary, the search for connections of the old and the new, the attraction of travels to distant abandoned places, the attraction of discoveries of distant inhabited places. Games with a photo on the screen: criticism of what is happening in the country, guessing the place and time of shooting, recognizing the native, searching for allusions, dispute about the etalon «f**king nowhere». The subsequent expansion of these games, in which the images of the ruins become an archetype, which is split into cliches, is associated with amateur drawing and collage. Among these games: the romanticizing of unhappy love and loneliness, the sentimentality of comfort and reminiscences and criticism of socio-political issues. Considering the signs through which authors and viewers interact, we come to the conclusion that, through the indexation of the old in images there occurs the existential experience of the oscillation between the old and the new, life and death, subjective, individual. In this you can find Punctum in photos of ruins, which is difficult to reflect, pronounce, which causes controversy among community members. The symbolic aspect is often associated more with the Studium of photographs. Thus, the global historical narrative is destroyed, the past, the present and the future are no longer connected in a single chain, but grow out of individual private memories, stories, comments. The research showed that the popularity of the aesthetization of ruins in the modern network culture could be associated with a crisis of identity and a rethinking of relations with the past in the post-Soviet space.