Although the authors propose a useful model for thinking about the structure of memory and memory deficits, their distinction between entities and relational encoding is incompatible with data showing that even individual objects – prototypical ‘entities’ – are made up of distinct features which require binding. Thus, ‘entity’ and ‘relational’ brain regions may need to solve fundamentally the same problems.
Humans’ civilization has a system of different social tools, institutions, and types of positive and negative work, with teaching/learning determined by the different interests of many actors. Negative work is more hidden and less studied. A paradoxical adaptive problem for teachers with good intentions is design of teaching/learning that equips pupils for learning in future environments unknown to the teachers.
Pepper & Nettle describe possible processes underlying what they call a behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD). Although we are certain about the application of evolutionary models to our understanding of poverty, we are less certain about the utility of behavioral constellations. The empirical record on poverty-related behaviors is much more divergent and broad than such constellations suggest.
In addition to the “universal glue”, which is the local mechanical causation, the standard explanatory scheme of classical science presumes two “universal vessels”, which are global space and time. I call this outdated metaphysical setting “black-and-white” because it allows for only two principle scales. A prospective metaphysics able to bind existing sciences together needs to be “colored”, that is allow for scale relativity and diversification by domain.