The article compares the well-known socially-oriented interpretations of the phenomenon of memory with the most interesting new elaborations by Russian scholars in philosophy, psychology, linguistics, and cultural studies. It is shown that the conceptualisations of memory aiming to overcome the dichotomy of individual and super-individual discover the path to synthesis in history.
During the 1970-1980s in the framework of Soviet comparative studies in history the regional approach was formed with distinguishing of Central Europe, South-East Europe and Eastern Europe (all these regions were parts of the socialist space then). Such a traditional division dominates so far in the works of Russian scholars, who have normally rather negative attitude to the concept of East-Central Europe, i.e. the expanding of Central Europe at the expense of Eastern Europe. Discussions about European regions and correspondent terminology using geographical, historical, political and civilizational arguments, make it possible to overcome some radical treatments.
Analysis of interaction of the Polish question with a number of essential social, religious and political problems of the Russian empire makes it possible to rethink this phenomenon in the wide historical context, estimate the scale and nature of Russian-Polish contradictions as well as difficulties relating to their solution.