[Рец. на:] M. Malzahn. The Tocharian verbal system. Leiden – Boston: Brill, 2010. (Brill's studies in Indo-European languages & linguistics, vol. 3).
This book continues the encyclopedic multi-volume series “Languages of the World”, which is being prepared at the Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Sciences. This volume addresses the Indo-European languages of Western and Central Asia, including Anatolian, Phrygian, Galatian, Relict Aryan, Armenian with its varieties and Tocharian. Almost all languages considered are ancient with the exception of Modern Armenian. Each essay follows the typologically oriented template implemented throughout the Languages of the World series. This template imposes sociolinguistic, diachronic and structural characterization upon individual languages and ensures the commensurability of the descriptions of different languages. A set of maps illustrating the spread of the languages is appended. The volume is intended as a fundamental study addressed to the linguists of various specializations, but also as a reference source addressed to a wide audience of historians, cultural anthropologists, teachers as well as students, and everyone interested in ancient and Indo-European languages.
The article focuses on some views on the notions of valency and actant, major reasons for change of valency of English verbs with incorporated actants and semantic and syntactic valency of verbs with incorporated actants.
An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit' by addition of a suffix-is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.