[Рец. на:] A. Carstairs-McCarthy. The evolution of morphology. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. (Studies in the evolution of language, 14)
The role of orthographic neighbors (e.g. bank—tank) in word processing has been discussed in many experimental studies. However, these studies have been conducted on a limited pool of languages, and many important questions are still unresolved. After creating a lexical database StimulStat that contains various neighborhood parameters for Russian, we conducted the rst experiment with substitution neighbors in Russian. We used lexical decision task with priming, and manipulated the following factors: whether the prime is more or less frequent than the target, whether the prime is a nominative singular (primary) form or an oblique form, and whether the substituted letter is word- nal or in the middle of the word. The results sug- gest that noun forms undergo morphological decomposition at a very early stage and shed new light on the process of activating candidates during lexical. The results also have practical signi cance because it is well known that spelling errors are in uenced by neighborhood e ects.
The article deals with some facts of the behavior of verbal personal markers in one of Khakas dialects. These phenomena that have parallels in other Turkic languages and dialects demonstrate the effect of two different trends. First, we see the "paradigmatization" of personal conjugation, i.e. the analogous development of the word forms. It is caused by paradigmatic unification, which violates old distribution of personal markers associated with the analytism / synthetism of primarily nominal / finite verb forms. Second, we see the genesis of new analytism based on converting of personal pronouns and particles into clitics under the conditions of the colloquial syntax.
In this paper, the main purpose is to consider applications of morphological analysis in text classifiation. Morphological analysis helps us to learn grammatical features of words, grammatical semantic and the interaction between the elements of text. We propose the neurosemantic network based on morphological analysis for learning vector representations of the text’s grammatical structures and the recursive autoencoder that consists of two parts - the fist part combines two vectors of words, the second one combines two vectors of morphology.
The paper deals with the question of the correlation between 1) tonal independence and phonological weight of a morpheme and 2) the grammaticality of its meaning in the Kakabe language. In Kakabe morphemes with grammatical meaning, such as auxiliaries, different verbal and noun affixes etc. tend to contain only one light syllable and to possess no lexical tone of their own. The case of the post-subject auxiliary markers, which is in the focus of the paper, is especially revealing of the correlation between phonology and grammatical function of a morpheme. Syntactically, these markers occupy an intermediate position between the defendant affixes and more free lexical morphemes. This is mirrored at the phonological level in the fact that the paradigm of auxiliaries comprises both tonally dependent markers consisting of only one light syllable and markers which have their own tone and consist of more than one syllable.
The introductory article clarifies the title of the current issue of «METHOD» and explicates the purpose of the entire publication. It explains slight but telling differences between the Russian, English and German phrasings that expound the meaning of the title and purpose of the yearbook. Subtle but indicative differences between languages and modes of speech and thought highlight a major issue of knowledge transfer. The yearbook departs from knowledge transfer to a more incentive issue of convergence and divergence of cognitive skills. Introduction focuses on transdisciplinary organons. They derive from our basic cognitive abilities. The initial one is the faculty to tell relative degrees of our sensations (bigger - smaller, warmer - colder etc.) and then to rate sizes of things and intensity of processes. The following one is pattern recognition or our ability to single out certain ‘rated’ entities from their environment. The subsequent one is our capacity to assign meaning to the ‘recognized’ figures and forms of the world around. It further supplements with the gift to use words and images to grasp sense and to convey it. Each of the three fundamental cognitive abilities diverge into further generations of abundant skills and proficiencies. Elaborate methods of scientific research outreach to thresholds of our knowledge. Right there they intertwine with each other. Interdisciplinary linkages develop. Transdisciplinary prospects loom. We conceive imminent convergence of our methodological skills into three transdisciplinary organons congenial to the three cognitive abilities. The first one is metretics or the higher technique of measurement and calculus. It resides in mathematical and statistical studies. The next one is morphetics or the expertise of exploring forms, shapes and figures. It resides in all kinds of morphological, comparative, configurative and evolutionary research. The last one is semiotics or the art of processing sense and reference. It resides in still budding semiologies, cognitive arts and still rudimentary humanities.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.