[Рец. на:] A. Carstairs-McCarthy. The evolution of morphology. – Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. (Studies in the evolution of language, 14)
This book is a collection of articles dealing with various aspects of grammatical relations and argument structure in the languages of Europe and North and Central Asia (LENCA). Topics covered with respect to individual languages are: split-intransitivity (Basque), causativization (Agul), transitives and causatives (Korean and Japanese), aspectual domain and quantification (Finnish and Udmurt), head-marking principles (Athabaskan languages), and pragmatics (Eastern Khanty and Xibe). Typology of argument-structure properties of ‘give’ (LENCA), typology of agreement systems, asymmetry in argument structure, typology of the Amdo Sprachbund, spatial realtors (Northeastern Turkic), core argument patterns (languages of Northern California), and typology of grammatical relations (LENCA) are the topics of articles based on cross-linguistic data. The broad empirical sweep and the fine-tuned theoretical analysis highlight the central role of argument structure and grammatical relations with respect to a plethora of linguistic phenomena.
The role of orthographic neighbors (e.g. bank—tank) in word processing has been discussed in many experimental studies. However, these studies have been conducted on a limited pool of languages, and many important questions are still unresolved. After creating a lexical database StimulStat that contains various neighborhood parameters for Russian, we conducted the rst experiment with substitution neighbors in Russian. We used lexical decision task with priming, and manipulated the following factors: whether the prime is more or less frequent than the target, whether the prime is a nominative singular (primary) form or an oblique form, and whether the substituted letter is word- nal or in the middle of the word. The results sug- gest that noun forms undergo morphological decomposition at a very early stage and shed new light on the process of activating candidates during lexical. The results also have practical signi cance because it is well known that spelling errors are in uenced by neighborhood e ects.
The paper considers the grammatical expression of information source with past tense forms of the verb in the Nakh-Daghestanian languages. These languages are spoken on a relatively compact territory in the North Caucasus and, partly, in the Transcaucasian area. The area is part of a larger area ranging from the Balkan Peninsula to Central Asia, which includes the Caucasus, and where similar verb forms used to express information source are found. It is considered plausible that these forms arose as the result of language contact with Turkic, and for some languages (e.g. Armenian, Georgian), this is confirmed. The paper compares the characteristics of these forms in the Nakh-Daghestanian language family based on descriptive grammars, and illustrates their genetic and areal distribution on a map. I will show that the areal vs. genetic distribution is not trivial. There are three distinct zones within the territory of the Nakh-Daghestanian languages: more grammaticalized forms are attested in the nortwestern region, partly grammaticalized forms are dominant in the central region, and in the southern area the feature is absent. It is currently impossible to establish how these forms appeared in the Nakh-Daghestanian languages, through contact with which Turkic language exactly, and how this process took place. However, the distribution outlined in this article indicates that language contact played a role in their dissemination.
The data from several villages near the town of Opochka, Pskov region, which lie on Issa and Velikaya rivers, recorded in 2017 from seven women of older generation (1927-1957 years of birth) has been partly transcribed and used in the short description of Opochka dialects. In the article, the phonetic and morphological systems of Opochka dialects are described as well as some syntactic and morphosyntactic phenomena. The description is followed by two fragments of transcription of informants’ monologues.
In this paper, the main purpose is to consider applications of morphological analysis in text classifiation. Morphological analysis helps us to learn grammatical features of words, grammatical semantic and the interaction between the elements of text. We propose the neurosemantic network based on morphological analysis for learning vector representations of the text’s grammatical structures and the recursive autoencoder that consists of two parts - the fist part combines two vectors of words, the second one combines two vectors of morphology.
The introductory article clarifies the title of the current issue of «METHOD» and explicates the purpose of the entire publication. It explains slight but telling differences between the Russian, English and German phrasings that expound the meaning of the title and purpose of the yearbook. Subtle but indicative differences between languages and modes of speech and thought highlight a major issue of knowledge transfer. The yearbook departs from knowledge transfer to a more incentive issue of convergence and divergence of cognitive skills. Introduction focuses on transdisciplinary organons. They derive from our basic cognitive abilities. The initial one is the faculty to tell relative degrees of our sensations (bigger - smaller, warmer - colder etc.) and then to rate sizes of things and intensity of processes. The following one is pattern recognition or our ability to single out certain ‘rated’ entities from their environment. The subsequent one is our capacity to assign meaning to the ‘recognized’ figures and forms of the world around. It further supplements with the gift to use words and images to grasp sense and to convey it. Each of the three fundamental cognitive abilities diverge into further generations of abundant skills and proficiencies. Elaborate methods of scientific research outreach to thresholds of our knowledge. Right there they intertwine with each other. Interdisciplinary linkages develop. Transdisciplinary prospects loom. We conceive imminent convergence of our methodological skills into three transdisciplinary organons congenial to the three cognitive abilities. The first one is metretics or the higher technique of measurement and calculus. It resides in mathematical and statistical studies. The next one is morphetics or the expertise of exploring forms, shapes and figures. It resides in all kinds of morphological, comparative, configurative and evolutionary research. The last one is semiotics or the art of processing sense and reference. It resides in still budding semiologies, cognitive arts and still rudimentary humanities.
The article makes an effort to trace the paradigmatic unification processes in the development history of the system of personal flections of primary predication in Turkic languages and dialects. This method allows to verify the Proto-Turkic reconstruction and reconstruct a number of intermediate states for this morphological subsystem. At the same time, it demonstrates some results of contact interaction in dialectal continua, which repeatedly appeared in Turkic territories.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.