Средние века: археология смыслов
The author discusses the meaning of zhe term "the Middle Ages".
The article is centered on the custom of using of such a specific insignia as parasol in processions of western princes during the Middle Ages.
Der Begriff "Meistererzählung" ist in den letzten Jahren in der öffentlichen Debatte häufig als Kampfbegriff gebraucht worden, wenn es darum ging, gegnerische Positionen als ideologisch zu brandmarken. Weniger bekannt ist dagegen der Versuch innerhalb der historischen Wissenschaften, diejenigen Meister- oder Metaerzählungen zu identifizieren, die der Praxis des Forschens in spezifischen Disziplinen unausgesprochen zugrundelagen. In diesem Band erörtern sieben Fachleute, an welchen Erzählmustern sich die Historiographie, die Literatur- und Musikgeschichtsschreibung seit dem 19. Jahrhundert orientiert haben, wenn es darum ging, dem Mittelalter einen Platz in einem allgemeineren Geschichtsbild zuzuweisen.
The review article discusses the studies of Russian political culture, historical memory and everyday life in the works of sociologists from the analytical Levada Centre. It is argued that Lev Gudkov's analysis of 'abortive modernisation' in Russia largely draws on the functionalist tradition in sociological theory. The multiple modernities perspective in contemporary sociology is presented as particularly relevant for understanding Russia's post-Soviet transformations.
The evidence shows that the Tanzanian and Zambian university students representing the African by origin overwhelming majority of the countries' population are generally tolerant towards their compatriots of the non-African (European and South Asian) origins. However, the evidence also gives reason to argue that the level of tolerance among the Zambian students is higher than among Tanzanian. The examination of a number of factors that supposedly could lead to the Zambian educated youth's higher level of tolerance has shown that the most significant among them are those related to the two nations' history since the pre-colonial time, the memory of it, and the use and abuse of this memory by the post-colonial states. From the historical point of view the greatest essential difference between the two cases lies in the existence since pre-colonial time of the Swahili culture and language and of the minimal number of expansionist centralized polities on the contemporary state's territory as the background for autochthonous peoples' unity in Tanzania and lack of such a background in pre-colonial Zambia.
The author contends that the formation of historical memory of the inhabitants of the province was considerably influenced by the works of local historians. The creativity of a Tver historian V. I. Kolosov (1854–1919) and the analysis of historiography processes are briefly reviewed in the paper and it allows to determine the purpose of the historian and his historical writing type. The author believes that Kolosov’s creativity is a socially oriented practice of historical writing.
The historiography of the XXIst c., which had been shaped by the influence of the so-called cultural turn, created a new field of research 'the history of historical culture'. This book presents a study of historical culture where the latter is approached through the synthesis of social, cultural and intellectual history. Intellectual phenomena have been placed in broad context of social experience, historical mentality and general intellectual processes. How did people view events (of their own lives, or of the life of their groups, but also of History) which they took part in? How did they evaluate them? How did they record and transmit information about those events while interpreting what had been seen or lived through? These questions are of great interest. Subjectivity combined with this information reflects views of a social group or of the society as a whole, but at the same time it shows cultural and historical features of its time.
This book brings together a group of leading experts on the political history of Germany and the medieval Empire from the Carolingian period to the end of the Middle Ages. Its purpose is to introduce and analyze key concepts in the study of medieval political culture. The representation of power by means of texts, buildings and images is a theme which has long interested historians. However, recent debates and methodological insights have fundamentally altered the way this subject is perceived, opening it up to perspectives unnoticed by its pioneers in the middle of the twentieth century. By taking account of these debates and insights, this volume explores a series of fundamental questions. How was power defined in a medieval context? How was it claimed, legitimized and disputed? What were the moral parameters against which its exercise was judged? How did different spheres of political power interact? What roles were played by texts, images and rituals in the maintenance of, and challenges to, the political order? The contributors bring varied and original approaches to these and other questions, illuminating the complex power relationships which determined the changing political history of medieval Germany.
The paper examines the history of dissemination in 14th-17th centuries in different european countries (especially in Eastern Europe), of one curious text, known as the "Privilege of Alexander the Great for the Slavs." Particular attention was given to the specifically Russian version of this text appeared in the latter half of the XVI century.