Голод как гуманитарная проблема современности в свете научного наследия П.А. Сорокина
In this work the problem of famine in the modern world is considered, the influence of famine on peopleђs behaviour in the conditions of a consumer society is analyzed. Scales of dissemination of famine and malnutrition in Russia and in the world, the reasons, their causing, and consequences for a person and a society are shown.
Two basic philosophical approachs to the analysis of food and gastronomic culture are analyse in the artikle. Porphyry`s analysis is based on a system of porphyria binary definitions - hunger / appetite, suffering / enjoyment, body / soul, dirt / cleanliness. E.Levinas analises food as transformation of otherwise in sameness, feast as complicity, food as an experience of sincerity of existence. These two concepts contain opportunities of methodological framework for the analysis of contemporary gastronomic culture.
In the article the phenomenon of the hungry years considered in the context of the history of everyday life. In this case we are talking about the so-called "normal exceptions"that is very common in the Russian history of the situation, when in the conditions of emergency social norms and anomalies are reversed. One of the most vivid examples of such extreme situation is famine of 1921-1922, closely connected with the problem of adaptation (more precisely, survival) the mass of the population of Russia. The behavior of individuals and groups in the period of "Holodomor" you can understand, proceeding not only from the obvious vital motivation, but also of their mentality and life experience. The author concludes that hunger is not only weakened the viability of the survivors, but also dramatically changed the mentality and behavior of Russian citizens, especially the younger generation: a moral and social degradation, which was manifested in the rising crime, extortion and bribery.
As long as they call it University The author considers the pointlessness of choosing between historical models of university. Instead, he proposes to find what is happening to knowledge today and whether it is relevant for higher education. Obviously, the internet and modern communication technologies affect the character of knowledge and the attitude towards it. The decline of the national state means a change of the principal partner and client of science. Now it is the individual customer who determines user-friendly content and form of knowledge. University bureaucracy does its best to satisfy his desires. It is this bureaucracy, not scholars-professors, who embody university now. Current trends in know- ledge and university are similar in Russia and in the West (the Bologna reform as a realization of the managerial turn), despite of the huge degree of corruption and plagiarism in the former.
The article is anylized the narcissistic structure of a person as a priority model of identity in contemporary mass society. Narcissistic hunger initiates an endless consumption, oscillation between nothingness and the grandeur induce to seek external confirmation of its greatness – that is the key to prosperity of an industry stars. The thirst for glory, envy, romantic idealization of reality and the triumph of glamour – these main values of mass society are directly related to the narcissistic structure of a person.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.