Syntactic Strategies of Exclamatives
The study presented in this paper has two aims. First, it establishes pragmasemantic features of exclamations and exclamatives relying on three formulated approaches – a constructional approach, a presupposition approach, and a scalarity approach, and suggests distinguishing proper exclamatives, the syntactic structures of which are conventionally associated with an illocutionary force of expressivity, from improper ones that do not have such an association. Second, involving the data of 45 languages, the paper reveals and describes 5 syntactic strategies of exclamatives, which are as follows: subject-verb inversion, subordinate clauses, noun phrases, anaphoric adverbs and adjectives, and wh-phrases. The latter three are further divided into several sub-strategies.
This paper reports upon the study of the lexico-grammatical distribution of Russian matrix predicates selecting kakoj remarkable clauses (or so-called ‘embedded’ exclamatives) in the Russian National Corpus, with some cross-linguistic parallels. It reveals that Russian matrix predicates belong to four conceptual classes: perceptual, mental, emotive, and speech. It shows that the phenomenon of ‘embedded’ exclamatives is irregular because: (1) matrix predicates seem to be lexically idiosyncratic and (2) the most frequent forms of matrix predicates (except for optatives) are on the way to be grammaticalized. The paper also suggests accounting for the observed distribution of predicates in terms of the Gricean maxims of conversation.
This paper provides evidence for Evans’ (2007) insubordination hypothesis w.r.t. wh-exclamatives. It investigates word order in matrix wh-exclamatives and their subordinate correlates and tests matrix-subordinate asymmetry (the felicitousness of wh-words in matrix and subordinate contexts). It establishes distinctions among three groups of wh-exclamatives. Group 1 comprises qualitative and quantitative wh-exclamatives, which together seem to be a basic cross-linguistic wh-exclamative pattern. The qualitative variety demonstrates several strategies of using wh-words, some of which are exclamative-only and/or are sensitive to ellipsis of a gradable adjective/adverb. Group 2 implies the semantic hierarchy w.r.t. the felicitousness of wh-words in matrix exclamatives: ‘what’/‘who’/‘where’>‘when’>‘why’. Group 3 includes ‘which’, ‘what kind’, ‘how’ (manner) exclamatives. Unlike Groups 1 and 3, Group 2 is subject to cross-linguistic variation w.r.t. matrix-subordinate asymmetry. The paper suggests partial overlap between the established classification of wh-exclamatives and the classification developed by Nouwen and Chernilovskaya (2015) and have implications for an exclamative sentence type.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.