Неравномерное пространственное развитие в России: объяснения новой экономической географии
We study the dynamics of inter-regional disparities for a number of characteristics of development, test the hypothesis of the new economic geography. The empirical analysis shows the spatial concentration of economic activity is continuing in Russia and the rate of inter-regional divergence, is rather high. The factors of the spatial concentration and regional disparities in Russia are population density, size and accessibility of markets, as well as the level of diversification and industry structure of the economy.
The comparative study of Russian regions faces a number of methodological problems, the most important being the magnitude o f the variations that exist between the regions, their scope within a single state, and the correlation between Russian politics in general, and the peculiarities of regional polities. It is very important to find the correct balance between the analysis of formal political institutions, which are easier to research, and informal political practices, which are also very important but much more difficult to study. It is necessary to go beyond basing ones’ conclusions about regional politics on surveys of experts in the regions, which has been a typical approach employed in many research projects in Russia. Instead, one should rely on quantifiable variables. However, in a closed political system such as Russia, it is not surprising that scholars will often use ‘insider’ information and ‘participant observation’. In this comparative study I attempt to uncover the similarities and the differences to be found in the different types of regional polities.
Evolutionary economic geography (EEG) has experienced a dynamic boost: an inter-disciplinary mix of geographers, regional scientists and economists are applying new concepts and tools to describe regional economic dynamics. This paper provides an review on the Workshop on “Evolutionary Economic Geography in Central and Eastern Europe” (Budapest, November 11–15, 2013). In short, the Workshop provided an overview of the EEG concepts and quantitative tools mainly through a series of lectures by Ron Boschma (Director, CIRCLE, Lund University and Professor, Utrecht University) and, at the same time, served as a platform for young CEE researchers aiming to contribute to the EEG literature and to understand the complex regional dynamics of economic progress.
The evolution of a special research branch is investigated and described - economic geography, from its origin phase to the up-to-date time.
The subject of this article is a research on interregional differences in volume and structure of alcohol consumption based on official statistical data and testing of a hypothesis about various macroeconomic factors influencing alcohol consumption. This testing was carried out with regression analysis method on the basis of data from regions of the Russian Federation. Indicators used in the analysis were received from official state statistics' sources that are free to access on respective web-sites. Due to the lack of data on alcohol consumption by regions, sales rates of alcohol beverages in per capita volume terms (broken down by commodity) were used as proxy variables of alcohol consumption. On account of information on percentage of spirit in all alcohol products under review per capita indices of absolute alcohol consumption were estimated for each region specifically, contribution of each product into its forming was also assessed.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.