Multilayer diamond-like structures for X-ray optics
In this work authors presented new approach to investigation of multilayer heterostructures by joint calculation HRXRD and XRR data.
Two modifications of poly(N-vinylcaprolactam)—PVCL25 and PVCL40 (drying of a PVCL solution at 25 and 40°С, respectively)—as powdered films and their solutions were systematically investigated for the first time. Powders were studied by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, low-temperature krypton adsorption, and differential scanning calorimetry. Solutions were studied by smallangle X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering. It was demonstrated that powders of PVCL25 and PVCL40 differ in the characteristics of the sub- and microstructure and in the water content and the solutions differ in the particle size. The relationships between the characteristics of the systems in the solid and liquid state and between the hydrodynamic diameter of PVCL particles in solution and their coagulation time were found.
The characteristics of RAP crystal, metal-carbon multilayer X-ray mirror and diamond-like carbon (DLC) X-ray mirror are compared/ The advantages of DLC mirrors in resolution power are described. Temperature and radiation influence on the reflectivity and bandwidth of Bragg peak for diamond-like mirrors are studied. It is shown that the parameters of DLC mirrors after annealing in vacuum are stable up to 570 C.
The first synthesized and X-ray structurally characterized ‘‘classical’’ iron(I) dioximate showed an unrivaled stability towards strong acids, thus calling for a reassessment of the origins of the electrocatalytic activity of similar low-valent cobalt and iron cage complexes with electron-withdrawing ribbed substituents, shown previously to be effective electrocatalysts of the HER
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.