Сатори, природа Будды, дхарма: как это соотносится с сознанием и что желает с последним дзэнская практика
This book examines Japanese culture of the Muromachi epoch (14-16 centuries) with Ikkyu Sojun (1394-1481) as its focal point. Ikkyu's contribution to the culture of his time was all-embracing and unique. He can be called the embodiment of his era, given that all the features typical for the Japanese culture of the High Middle Ages were concentrated in his personality. This multidisciplinary study of Ikkyu's artistic, religious, and philosophical heritage reconstructs his creative mentality and his way of life. The aesthetics and art of Ikkyu are shown against a broad historical background. Much emphasis is given to Ikkyu's interpretation of Zen. The book discusses in great detail Ikkyu's religious and ethical principles, as well as his attitude towards sex, and shows that his rebellious and iconoclastic ways were deeply embedded in the tradition. The book pulls together materials from cultural and religious history with literary and visual artistic texts, and offers a multifaceted view on Ikkyu, as well as on the cultural life of the Muromachi period. This approach ensures that the book will be interesting for art historians, historians of literature and religion, and specialists in cultural and visual studies.
A monograph about Ikkyu Sojun (1394-1481), Japanese Zen monk, poet, artist, calligrapher and the embodiment of cultural and spiritual life of his time, Muromachi epoch.
The Baikal region in Siberia had long been a zone of interactions between various European, Asian and global actors. Numerous relational spaces which were produced by the interactions were reconstructed in a geographic information system (GIS) and analysed jointly. The fall of the Qing and Russian empires resulted in energetic attempts to redraw administrative and international boundaries. Between 1917 and 1919 several disentanglement projects were developed and implemented by different actors, including indigenous intellectuals and Buddhist monks. These were the Buryat Autonomy proclaimed in 1917; the Buddhist theocracy created by a dissident Buddhist monk Lubsan Samdan Tsydenov; and the pan-Mongolian federation of Inner, Outer, Hulunbuir and Buryat Mongolia supported by Japanese officers and a regional Cossack leader Grigory Semenov. Each project underlined a certain group identity and claimed particular relational spaces. The article explored how the conflicts between overlapping identities were resolved, and why all three projects failed.
Religious teachings have played a significant role in the development of human rights, but nowadays, they do not exert any serious influence on the latter. In recent decades, the major religions focus on developing their own human rights concepts which are compared to modern liberal theories. Such religious teachings differ in several relevant aspects. The beginnings of Buddhism and Protestantism do not reject the democratic and liberal understanding ofhuman rights, but the Orthodoxyand Islam focus on opposing their attitudes to such interpretation. The question as to the possibilityto take into account religious views within the framework of human rights legal theory remains open.
Biography of the famous translator and commentator of esoteric sutras Yu Hsing, written by Kobo Daishi, founder of Shingon -mystic school in Japan.
Mahāvairocanābhisaṃbodhi-sūtra (MVS) is one of the two principal texts of esoteric (tantric) Buddhism. It expresses the ideal of devotées& sj called “religion of caryā” (differing from yoga-tradition: teaching of “those sitting and contemplating”, expounded in Vajraśekhara-tantra) and suggests concrete and practical way to become enlightened; this way is expressed in general picture of universe – Matrix maṇḍala (garbhadhātu-maṇḍala).
Presumably, its Sanscrit original was written in India in the 2-nd half of VII century a.d. Adequate descriptions of the period discussed remains only in the diaries of Chinese monks who went to India; in Indian or Tibetan sources we find nothing of the kind.
Indian monk Śubhakarasiṃha translated MVS around 724 using the copy that he and Yi-hsing discovered in Hua-yeng Temple in the capital of Chang-an. It was one of the texts that Wu-hsing collected during his 8-years stay in India. It is highly possible that MVS was compiled and started to gain popularity soon after Wu-hsing arrived in India sometime in the middle of the VII c. From its contents becomes immediately clear that it was combined from different sources. Chinese and Japanese traditions accept from ancient times thet Chapter I is a complete work in itself and differs from the rest text. We cannot exclude that it was a separate work of Mahayāna, processed accodringly and put in the beginning of MVS. By the same way, during the compillation some prose Chapters were added (VIIIth – «Samadhi without perception appearances», XXth – «Perfction of bodhisattva in accordance with upāya»). Earlier prose segment of Chapter VI («Real nature of siddhi attaining») is based on the parallel fragment from Tri-samāya-vyuha).
The earliest text of MVS consisted possibly if three blocks of Chapters: exploring body maṇḍala (II–VI), maṇḍala of speech (X–XII) and maṇḍala of conscience (XIII–XVI) together with some remaining Chapters that covered general items related to the theme.
Simultaneously to translating Śubhakarasiṃha was interpreting the text orally, and that «lectures» wrote down his disciple Yi-hsing – mathematition and astronomer, who made those notes the base for the main Chinese commentary to MVS.
We know very little about another commentator of MVS and other tantric texts – Buddhaguhya (parts and extracts of his conmentary are translated and put in present work). He was born presumably around 700 or somewhat earlier and lived mainly in the region of Varanasi, being the younger contemporary of Buddhajñānapada – one of the leaders of the group that developed main points of Guhyasamāja-tantra. He received many admonitions and initiations of this tradition. It was said that he also studied texts of Māya-jāla cycle, in particular Guhya-garbha tantra, under teacher Lilavajra.
The central theme of MVS: what is Perfect Enlightenment and how it can ve reached? This Enlightenment is personified in the figure of Buddha Mahavairocana; correspondingly the aim proclaimed for all devotées is to become Mahavairocana. This main idea has three interdependent aspects: reasonal base, nature of Perfect Enlightenment and its result.
Reasonal base is double edged: there is a direct reason (enlightened conscience bodhicitta that is inherent in all living beings and garantees obtaining of enlightenment), there is indirect reason (striving for enlightenment and the Way including eight levels of conscience, 60 types of conscience and super-human levels of śravakas, pratyekabuddhas and bodhisattvas).
Natural aim of enlightenment – to comprehend ones conscience (citta) as it is.
Its result – manifestation of Mahavairocana in three appearances: Body (Nirnamakāya), Speech (Saṃdhogakāya) and Conscience (Dharmakāya) in forms of maṇḍala, mantra and mūdra. This creates connection between practitioners and Mahavairocana, giving them possibility to become enlightened.
Methods of gaining Perfect Enlightenment forms two groups: those described in Chapter I, and those mentioned in other Chapters. Three main technics of the first group are: 1) meditative contemplation with the aim of comprehending ones own conscience, 2) understanding that there are no images and forms to be comprehand through conscience, 3) contemplating three types of defiled conscience.
The second group of technics is more «tantric»; yogin must imagine moon disc as a manifestation of bodhicitta on the corresponding level. On that disc is placed mantra in the form of Sanscrit letter; then the body form of god is imagined and mantra produces sound from the heart of that god.
Three forms of the main Matrix maṇḍala are described in MVS: Chapter II presents them in physical forms, Chapter VIII – in Sanscrit seed-syllables, Chapter XI – in symbolic objects.
MVS was introduced to Japan in the first part of the VIIIth century, but its text gained new life after Kukai (774-835) returned from China in 806 and made it the cornerstone of newly founded Shingon shcool.
Supplements placed at the end of the book consist of: a complete translation of Yi-hxing’s Commentary to the 1st Chapter of MVS, Yi-hxing’s biography from Tsan-ning’s “Son’s Biographies of Distinguished Monks”, abstract concerning Yi-hxing from Kukai’s work about the patriarchs of Mantrayana, short outline of Yi-hxing’s life.
Translated biography of the famous translator and commentator of esoteric sutras Yi Hshing (683-727).
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.