The Renewal of Humanism in European Psychotherapy: Developments and Applications
In Europe, humanistic psychotherapy is becoming increasingly widespread. Not only are the explicitly "humanistic" psychotherapies being robustly used, they are increasingly being integrated into approaches not traditionally viewed as humanistic. One can therefore observe a progression in the personalization of methodology within European modes of practice. In the past several decades, humanistic psychology has inspired the expanding use of existential-phenomenological modes of practice. This theoretical base, coupled with recent trends in person-centered systems theory, points toward an invigorating future for humanistic forms of practice in Europe, despite the political trends toward psychotherapeutic practice in Germany.
On the basis of an empirical study conducted in three towns and one district (rayon) of the Perm region and the Ivanovo region the processes of interaction between the legislative and executive branches of local government has been described and explained. In all the local communities the representative bodies were not equal partners of the executives while the heads of the local administrations remain the most powerful figures. The differences between the communities were determined, first, by the composition of the executive leaders and, second, by the configuration of power resources and methods of influence used by them. Both elected mayors and appointed city-managers can be the leaders of the executive institutions; their leadership positions depend not so much on institutional (formal) properties, but on personal characteristics of particular actors. Four types (models) of interaction between the branches of local government has been identified: (1) “dominance based on coercion”, (2) “covert manipulation", (3) “dominance based on bargaining”, (4) “dominance in the situation of confrontation”. In the first case the dominance of the local executive over the local legislature is the most evident: dependence of the deputies from the city-manager is so high that he does not need to directly interfere with their activities since the right decisions are made “by default”. In the second and third cases the dependence is less obvious and the leaders of the local executives have to be more actively involved in the process of local decision-making; in the configuration of resources and techniques used to influence the local deputies the major roles play, respectively, resources of manipulation and bargaining. In the last case the situation is complicated by the continuing split within the political and administrative elite which poses a threat to the dominance of the leader of the local administration in the local politics.
The educational-methodical manual contains materials for lectures and 200 assignments on constitutional and legal regulation and functioning in modern conditions of the institution of the people's representation - the parliament, the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, can be used in teaching such disciplines as: theory of state and law; constitutional (state) law; constitutional law of the Russian Federation; constitutional law of foreign countries; international public law; administrative law; municipal law, and also includes materials for a special lecture course “Constitutional and legal status of legislative bodies. Modern parliamentarism. Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. ” Tasks and questions to them are compiled on the materials of the Russian press. Addressed to undergraduate students, undergraduate students, undergraduates, teachers, practical workers, as well as all those who are interested in the issues of the institute of national representation, the activities of the parliaments of the world countries, the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, including in the context of inter-parliamentary cooperation, parliamentary diplomacy.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.