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## Mathematical justification of for the transition to negative pressure of the new ideal liquid

Negative pressure also means negative energy and, therefore, “holes”, antiparticles. Continuation across infinity to negative energies is accomplished by using a parastatistical correction to the Bose-Einstein distribution.

This paper is an analysis of lexical categorisation of the temperature domain in modern Eastern Armenian. Compared to the vast research outline proposed in (Koptjevskaja-Tamm 2011), this paper has several important limitations. First, it is focused on non-derived, primary temperature terms (most of which happen to be adjectives or nouns, or both). Derived lexical items, as well as lexical items that apply to temperature phenomena only secondarily, are not considered. Second, it focuses on lexical rather than morphosyntactic categorisation, in the sense that more attention is paid, again, to lexical items than to the morphosyntactic patterns they are associated with. In a sense, we focus on elementary morphological units – dedicated temperature roots – rather than on the morphological and morphosyntactic patterns they are involved in.

As Eastern Armenian represents an elaborated system of temperature terms (some dozen lexical items), even under such restrictions the linguistic data presented below is well worth of analysis. To a certain extent, the issues of part-of-speech derivation are brought into consideration. It should also be noted that, as the examples in the paper show, there seem to be no sharp differences between e.g. morphosyntactic treatment of the subjects of tactile vs. ambient vs. personal temperatures, such as shown in Koptjevskaja-Tamm (2011) through a comparison of French, Finnish, Japanese and German examples. It is true that, as in many languages, in Armenian ambient temperature is often expressed by impersonal predication (cf. ex. 3 below). However, experiencers of personal temperature (as most experiencers in general), carriers of tactile temperature and meteorological phenomena expressed by explicit NPs (‘day’, ‘air’, ‘sun’) predicated by ambient terms are all treated as subjects. They are assigned nominative marking and control verbal agreement. There certainly may be finer morphosyntactic differences, but these are left for future research(ers).

The structure of the paper is as follows. Section 1 provides a brief genealogical, structural, sociolinguistic and historical account of the Eastern Armenian language and introduces the main source of the present study (Eastern Armenian National Corpus). Section 2 provides an overview of the temperature words of Eastern Armenian along the lines of the typological dimensions around which the present volume is centred, including the pivotal distinction between tactile and ambient temperatures. Personal temperature terms are in a sense independent from this main opposition, so that the discussion of personal temperatures goes alongside but apart from the main argument, both here and later in Section 6. Section 3 is an overview of metaphorical uses of the temperature terms. Section 4 considers part-of-speech properties and some aspects of derivational morphology of the Eastern Armenian temperature words. Section 5 is an account of the known etymologies of the terms. Section 6 introduces some data on relative textual frequencies of temperature terms. Section 7 is a summary of the paper.

The monograph presents results by professor Dr. A. Shalumov’s Research School of Modeling, Information Technology and Automated Systems (Russia). The program, ASONIKA, developed by the school is reviewed here regarding reliability and quality of devices for simulation of electronics and chips during harmonic and random vibration, single and multiple impacts, linear acceleration and acoustic noise, and steady-state and transient thermal effects. Calculations are done for thermal stress during changes in temperature and power in time. Calculations are done for number of cycles to fatigue failure under mechanical loads as well as under cyclic thermal effects. Simulation results for reliability analysis are taken into account. Models, software interface, and simulation examples are presented.

For engineers and scientists involved in design automation of electronics.

Pressure sensors on the basis of thin-film tenzorezistorny nano – and microelectromechanical systems with the frequency output signal, steady to influence of temperatures are considered. Original schemes of frequency converters and topology of an arrangement of tenzoelement on a membrane of a sensitive element of the sensor are submitted.

There is considerable international activity in the development of numerical models for the purpose of climate simulation and for forecasting on various timescales. This publication is an attempt to foster an early interchange of information among workers in these areas. The material in the publication is the response to a "call for contributions" sent to scientists worldwide. Contributions obtained in response to this call are included if they are related to the CAS/JSC numerical experimentation programme, if they give new results, and if they are of suitable length and size. Reports that do not meet these criteria, have been previously published, or are purely theoretical may be rejected. The most appropriate reports give results of new numerical experiments in the form of a succinct explanation accompanied by suitable tables and figures. The contributions are collected into subject groupings as appropriate. The range of subjects is expected to vary with time and depends on the submissions received. The large number of contributions from around the world indicates the wide scope of activities in numerical experimentation, and the valuable addition that this type of report makes to the refereed journals. Comments and suggestions for improvement to the publication are welcomed. To facilitate location of specific contributions, they are ordered alphabetically by author in the various subject areas. The publication is web-based and accessible at the WGNE web site at http://bluebook.meteoinfo.ru. Note that since the beginning of 2018 the old link https://www.wcrpclimate.org/WGNE/blue_book.html does not work anymore. For many years the WGNE Blue Book was prepared and edited at the Environment Canada. This multi-year initiative is highly appreciated. Now the Hydrometcentre of Russia has taken the lead on the activity. In 2016-2017, the contributions to the WGNE Blue Book were submitted through the web site of the Hydrometcenter of Russia. Recently a new web site of the Working group of numerical experimentation http://wgne.meteoinfo.ru has been developed. The site is currently supported by the Hydrometcenter of Russia. Since 2018, the contributions to the WGNE Blue book are submitted through the new WGNE site at http://bluebook.meteoinfo.ru/add_article.php.

Optimization of designing radio electronic equipment by criterions of temperature and reliability decrease time for creation the new radio electronic equipment, increase reliability of it and decrease expenditures during elementary stages of designing because designers have possibility to choose version of scheme and construction which ensure minimum temperatures of element base in conditions of exsploitation.

The relationship between thermodynamics and economics has been known for a long time. The term ``thermoeconomics'' has even appeared. However, several aspects of the old thermodynamics are unacceptable in economics. For example, experts in thermodynamics believe that the diamond crystal is in the metastable state, and in due time will be transformed into graphite. However, these experts can hardly convince businessmen to part with their ancient diamonds.

The laws of economics require that the old conceptions of thermodynamicsa be mathematically scrutinized and reviewed.

The correspondence principle for quantum statistics, classical statistics and economics which associates the number of particles with the amount of money, the chemical potential with the nominal percentage, the negative pressure with debts, and the law of economic preference allowed to obtain agreement of the general theory of thermoeconomics with the latest experimental data.

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.

Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.