The history of the Austrian commercial colleges from their foundation as independent educational institutes to full integration into public administration (1850s-1950s)
Paradigm Shifts. Patterns and dynamics of innovation processes in urban planning and design.
Through the case study of the paradigm shift from modernist housing estates to compact mixed-use urban neighbourhoods this study investigates how profound novelties enter the discipline of urban planning and design. It neither focuses on the reasons for change (why?) nor on its results (what?), instead it seeks to provide insights on how a novel approach is created, disseminated and established as new routine. It finds that the compact mixed-use city model has been collectively produced and shaped by actors in an intense search for a new consensus in a milieu of heightened uncertainty, and it was successfully spread and established by referring to pressing needs in rather arbitrary ways. The study contributes to basic research in the fields of planning theory and planning history. The object of this research is the transformation in the conceptualization and planning of new housing estates in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Austria from the 1960s until today. The field of housing estates was one of the origins of the paradigm shift under investigation. As the provision of large-scale housing continues to pose a challenge to contemporary policy makers, understanding how novelties enter this field is of high importance.
Die Österreichische Gesellschaft für Soziologie (ÖGS) wurde 1950 gegründet, begann aber erst ab Mitte der 1960er-Jahre Aktivitäten zu entfalten. Das Bemühen, ein Professionsverband zu werden, stieß an Grenzen, da derartige Organisationen in Österreich systematisch nicht vorgesehen waren und ein kleiner Verein wie die ÖGS diese Randbedingungen auch nicht zu ändern vermochte. Die ÖGS gründete 1976 eine eigene Zeitschrift, die Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie (ÖZS), die seither regelmäßig erscheint und veranstaltet regelmäßig nationale, gelegentlich auch internationale Kongresse. Darüber hinausgehende Aktivitäten fanden unregelmäßig statt und Versuche, größere politische Wirkungen zu erzielen oder Regelungskompetenzen innerhalb der Disziplin zu monopolisieren, zeitigten keinen Erfolg.
Hyperinfations are a modern phenomenon often associated with periods of transition. By accelerating the dynamics that govern the financial, political and private spheres of life, hyperinfations necessitate a quickened decision-making process in which alternative choices are eliminated. Using the example of Austria following the First World War, this article shows that hyperinfations are likely to have a path-determining efect on multiple levels. While periods of transitions ofer the rare opportunity for countries to break with historical path dependence, hyperinfations carry the risk of creating new path dependence prematurely. By speeding up dynamics during transformative processes, hyperinfations eliminate possible alternatives that might otherwise have been chosen. Hyperinfations are thus best understood as neither the cause nor the consequence of transitions, but as their accelerating catalyst.
Sociology in Austria has been frequently affected by political developments in the country. This first history of sociology in Austria examines the impact of the break-up of the Habsburg Empire and of two consecutive dictatorships, which destroyed academic freedom by means of forced migration and imprisonment. Even after 1945 the re-established Second Republic did not dismiss professors promoted during the Nazi period, and failed to invite exiled academics to return home. The author argues that the result has been a continuation of favouritism and conformism, with compliance to political regimes sanctioned at the expense of meritocracy and that in the light of this chequered past we should celebrate instances of de-institutionalization.
In 1921 Austria became the first interwar European country to experience hyperinflation. The League of Nations, among other actors, stepped in to help reconstruct the economy, but a decade later Austria’s largest bank, Credit-Anstalt, collapsed. Historians have correlated these events with the banking and currency crisis that destabilized interwar Europe—a narrative that relies on the claim that Austria and the global monetary system were the victims of financial interlopers. In this corrective history, Nathan Marcus deemphasizes the destructive role of external players in Austria’s reconstruction and points to the greater impact of domestic malfeasance and predatory speculation on the nation’s financial and political decline.
Consulting sources ranging from diplomatic dossiers to bank statements and financial analyses, Marcus shows how the League of Nations’ efforts to curb Austrian hyperinflation in 1922 were politically constrained. The League left Austria in 1926 but foreign interests intervened in 1931 to contain the fallout from the Credit-Anstalt collapse. Not until later, when problems in the German and British economies became acute, did Austrians and speculators exploit the country’s currency and compromise its value. Although some statesmen and historians have pinned Austria’s—and the world’s—economic implosion on financial colonialism, Marcus’s research offers a more accurate appraisal of early multilateral financial supervision and intervention.
Illuminating new facets of the interwar political economy, Austrian Reconstruction and the Collapse of Global Finance reckons with the true consequences of international involvement in the Austrian economy during a key decade of renewal and crisis.
Interactions of music with the visual arts represent a promising field of studies within cultural, media and visual history. Indeed, its perspectives for different ave-nues of historical inquiry are considerable, and visual aspects of music have signifi-cant potential to contribute to scholarly understanding of the interplay between sounds, images, and perceptions.
Hyperinflations are a modern phenomenon often associated with periods of transition. By accelerating the dynamics that govern the financial, political and private spheres of life, hyperinflations necessitate a quickened decision-making process in which alternative choices are eliminated. Using the example of Austria following the First World War, this article shows that hyperinflations are likely to have a path-determining effect on multiple levels. While periods of transitions offer the rare opportunity for countries to break with historical path dependence, hyperinflations carry the risk of creating new path dependence prematurely. By speeding up dynamics during transformative processes, hyperinflations eliminate possible alternatives that might otherwise have been chosen. Hyperinflations are thus best understood as neither the cause nor the consequence of transitions, but as their accelerating catalyst.