Барони Р. Напряжение и разрешение: Музыкальность интриги или музыкальная интрига?
In Richard Powers's novel Orfeo (2014), the literary legacy of Jorge Luis Borges manifests itself in both narrative form and subject matter. Powers's main character and focalizer Peter Els begins by setting the Argentine's poetry to music and ends up becoming a composer-analogue to the notorious Pierre Menard, "author" of Don Quixote. Managing to develop a material, biochemical realization of the abstract "music of the spheres," the protagonist engages the reader in an intrinsic intellectual jeu, whereupon we are trapped to experience "gradations of fictivity"--i.e. the idea that some fictional subjects and events can be "less" fictive than others, which Wolf Schmid (2003) denounces on (narrato)logical grounds. By developing an embodied rapport with Els and his music, Powers's readers are brought to appreciate the music that noone can hear, just like Borges's audience is provided a direct access to an existent text by a non-existent novelist, Pierre Menard.
Under the rubrics of literature and music, two artistic forms of expression are brought together that have traditionally been connected, albeit not always in harmonious unity. In the spirit of the paragone, the competition between different art forms, in a number of historical aesthetics and poetics there is rather a competitive relationship between text and music, word and sound. Written in Dutch, English, and French and submitted by international scholars, the essays collected in this volume of Cahier voor Literatuurwetenschap - the book series sponsored by the Flemish Association of Literary Studies - address a range of issues outlining the contemporary shape of the interdisciplinary field of word and music studies.
The title coinage of this book, stimulacra , refers to the fundamental capacity of literary narrative to stimulate our minds and senses by simulating things through words. Musical stimulacra are passages of fi ction that readers are empowered to transpose into mental simulations of music. The book theorizes how fi ction can generate musical experience, explains what constitutes that experience, and explores the musical dimensions of three American novels: William T. Vollmann’s Europe Central (2005), William H. Gass’s Middle C (2013), and Richard Powers’s Orfeo (2014). Musical Stimulacra approaches fiction’s music from a readerly perspective. Instead of looking at how novels forever fail to compensate for music’s physical, structural, and affective properties, the book concentrates on what literary narrative can do musically. Negotiating common grounds for cognitive audionarratology and intermediality studies, Musical Stimulacra builds its case on the assumption that, among other things, fiction urges us to listen— to musical words and worlds.
Seeing it as a test case for the experientiality of narrative, I reclaim the concept of diegetic music from film to literature studies. My concern is whether readers can gain musical experience from what Scher dubs “verbal music”—diegetic music’s textual exponent, which I re-theorize in terms of audionarratology. As a storyworld phenomenon, diegetic music is literally heard by characters. However, we can only privilege it over other sonic events of the fictional universe if a specifically musical experience is transmitted across the borders of the diégèse. Seeking a solution to this problem, I borrow theoretical tools from the philosophy of music and cognitive narratology. First, I map three aspects of music—physical sound, tonal movement, and affective narrative—on what I call the “Triangular Iceberg of Musical Experience,” arguing for their complementary presence in individual listening acts, in different proportions. Second, I apply Jahn’s model of externalization/internalization of stories to show the cyclic nature of music’s circulation, which also applies to transitions of music to worlds of narrative fiction and back. Third, my three example case studies of verbal music outline the routes and constraints for readers’ enactive overhearing of diegetic music. Finally, I chart some textual variables to be manipulated in empirical testing of my hypotheses as my proposed follow-up to the present study. The essay demonstrates how “musicalized” prose provides a unique meeting point for reader-oriented narrative theory, intermediality studies, and empirical aesthetics.
Intonation – is the most important music trait in poetry. Intonation includes all elements of a poem, it is responsible for voice increases and decreases (it means that intonation takes part in creation of melody of a poem), for pauses, for placing the phrase accents, for acceleration and deceleration of speech, that helps to mark the most significant elements. Intonation is a significant unit that can form and change the meaning.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.