### Article

## Objective Analysis of the Structure of Three-Dimensional Atmospheric Fronts

A computational method for diagnosing threedimensional atmospheric fronts from temperature,

wind, and geopotential fields on a threedimensional regular grid is proposed. The criterion, which serves for

the diagnosis of atmospheric fronts, is discussed. The weights of the input information about the mentioned

fields are optimized based on the maximal difference between the correlation functions for (a) pairs of parti

cles separated by the front and (b) pairs from one synoptic mass. These weights were different for different

baric levels. The correlation functions and the optimization of weights were estimated on the basis of the

archive of fields of the NCEP objective analysis on the halfdegree latitude–longitude grid and data from

aerological observations. The results of numerical experiments on the construction of atmospheric fronts are

presented. Applying the described method to fields predicted for a term of up to 36 h showed that errors in

the prognostic models introduce a relatively weak distortion into the geometry of atmospheric fronts.

Homogeneous and isotropic with respect to horizontal variables random fields are useful for study of geophysical (in particular, meteorological) functions of spatial-temporal variables. The following horizontal scale (30 — 3000 km), which is induced by the spatial scale of the observing grid for the Earth’s atmosphere and by the power of modern computers for solutions of the system of hydrothermodynamics equations, which included water phase transformations etc, is important for the weather forecast problems.

The correlation functions (CFs) of the random fields may be applied for the following goals:

1) For the optimal interpolation of the meteorological information from the points of observation into the points of a regular finite-difference grid, as well as (for the checking of some observations by other ones) into another point of the observation.

2) For the models’ testing, if a climate model simulates adequately not only mean fields, but the fields of the relative dispersions and CFs, too, then we should consider the climate model as a certain one.

The CFs are evaluated by the global checked archive of meteorological observations by meteorological sounds. A special regularization procedure provides the strong positive definiteness of the CFs. The areas in the Earth atmosphere, where the isotropy hypothesis is essentially not fulfilled, were localized by a special algorithm.

Let us consider an algorithm, which can construct atmospheric fronts that separate so named homogeneous synoptic atmospheric volumes. Then we can evaluate separately CFs for the ensemble of the pairs of points, which are in a unite volume and CFs for the ensemble of the pairs of points, which are in a various volumes. We can see the difference between the different CFs. The difference will be more for a better algorithm. So, we obtain a quality criterion for such algorithms. The statistical approach given possibility to optimize the algorithm with respect to a lot of numerical parameters. The optimal algorithm was exploited in the operative regime in Hydrometeorological Center of Russia. The similar algorithms of numerical construction of boundaries between homogeneous volumes by a discrete set of observations can be realized for various physical media.

Negative pressure also means negative energy and, therefore, “holes”, antiparticles. Continuation across infinity to negative energies is accomplished by using a parastatistical correction to the Bose-Einstein distribution.

The monograph presents results by professor Dr. A. Shalumov’s Research School of Modeling, Information Technology and Automated Systems (Russia). The program, ASONIKA, developed by the school is reviewed here regarding reliability and quality of devices for simulation of electronics and chips during harmonic and random vibration, single and multiple impacts, linear acceleration and acoustic noise, and steady-state and transient thermal effects. Calculations are done for thermal stress during changes in temperature and power in time. Calculations are done for number of cycles to fatigue failure under mechanical loads as well as under cyclic thermal effects. Simulation results for reliability analysis are taken into account. Models, software interface, and simulation examples are presented.

For engineers and scientists involved in design automation of electronics.

We study the joint exit probabilities of particles in the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP) from space-time sets of a given form. We extend previous results on the space-time correlation functions of the TASEP, which correspond to exits from the sets bounded by straight vertical or horizontal lines. In particular, our approach allows us to remove ordering of time moments used in previous studies so that only a natural space-like ordering of particle coordinates remains. We consider sequences of general staircase-like boundaries going from the northeast to southwest in the space-time plane. The exit probabilities from the given sets are derived in the form of a Fredholm determinant defined on the boundaries of the sets. In the scaling limit, the staircase-like boundaries are treated as approximations of continuous differentiable curves. The exit probabilities with respect to points of these curves belonging to an arbitrary space-like path are shown to converge to the universal Airy 2 process.

The 26th THERMINIC Workshop will be held in Berlin, the capital of Germany. THERMINIC is the major European Workshop related to thermal issues in electronic components and systems. For academics and industrialists involved in both micro and power electronics this annual event promises to be a very special occasion with a high quality technical programme and exciting social events.

Pressure sensors on the basis of thin-film tenzorezistorny nano – and microelectromechanical systems with the frequency output signal, steady to influence of temperatures are considered. Original schemes of frequency converters and topology of an arrangement of tenzoelement on a membrane of a sensitive element of the sensor are submitted.

There is considerable international activity in the development of numerical models for the purpose of climate simulation and for forecasting on various timescales. This publication is an attempt to foster an early interchange of information among workers in these areas. The material in the publication is the response to a "call for contributions" sent to scientists worldwide. Contributions obtained in response to this call are included if they are related to the CAS/JSC numerical experimentation programme, if they give new results, and if they are of suitable length and size. Reports that do not meet these criteria, have been previously published, or are purely theoretical may be rejected. The most appropriate reports give results of new numerical experiments in the form of a succinct explanation accompanied by suitable tables and figures. The contributions are collected into subject groupings as appropriate. The range of subjects is expected to vary with time and depends on the submissions received. The large number of contributions from around the world indicates the wide scope of activities in numerical experimentation, and the valuable addition that this type of report makes to the refereed journals. Comments and suggestions for improvement to the publication are welcomed. To facilitate location of specific contributions, they are ordered alphabetically by author in the various subject areas. The publication is web-based and accessible at the WGNE web site at http://bluebook.meteoinfo.ru. Note that since the beginning of 2018 the old link https://www.wcrpclimate.org/WGNE/blue_book.html does not work anymore. For many years the WGNE Blue Book was prepared and edited at the Environment Canada. This multi-year initiative is highly appreciated. Now the Hydrometcentre of Russia has taken the lead on the activity. In 2016-2017, the contributions to the WGNE Blue Book were submitted through the web site of the Hydrometcenter of Russia. Recently a new web site of the Working group of numerical experimentation http://wgne.meteoinfo.ru has been developed. The site is currently supported by the Hydrometcenter of Russia. Since 2018, the contributions to the WGNE Blue book are submitted through the new WGNE site at http://bluebook.meteoinfo.ru/add_article.php.

Optimization of designing radio electronic equipment by criterions of temperature and reliability decrease time for creation the new radio electronic equipment, increase reliability of it and decrease expenditures during elementary stages of designing because designers have possibility to choose version of scheme and construction which ensure minimum temperatures of element base in conditions of exsploitation.

The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.

Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.

This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from *Being and **Time* through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the *Spiegel* interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.

Heidegger begins *Being and Time* with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. *The Irony of Heidegger *takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness.* The Irony of Heidegger* attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.

The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.