Обратная ипотека: обзор мировой практики
This article focuses on the reverse mortgage as a tool to enhance the well-being of the elderly by providing a way to use owned and occupied real estate to generate income in retirement. We describe the key features and history of the reverse mortgage program in the United States, with a particular focus on the types of mortgages offered, state support for the program, consumer protection and lender regulation. We compare the US experience to that of the other countries with developed reverse mortgage markets, such as the UK, Australia and Canada.
New approaches of the Russian legislation and case-law of Russian supreme courts in financial services
The article analyzes the new Russian parliamentary law and judiciary approaches by the Supreme Court, the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation relating to bank lending. The author criticizes a number of new relevant courts decisions of this category, proving the invalidity of arguments of some of them. Also, the author argues the fallacy of the sharp differences in the approaches to the courts to assessment of legitimacy of separate contractual conditions of credit agreements between business and consumer loans.
The article is related to the problematic of the content of the terms «banking service», «banking fee», as well as protection of citizens who conclude the consumer credit agreements from groundless banking fees.
The paper discusses the general problems of legal regulation on products containing genetically modified organisms. The author also analyzes existing international and Russian legal instruments regulating this field, reveals differences between the legal concepts of "environmental information" and "information about the usage of GMOs.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/