Уровень и страх безработицы: есть ли между ними связь?
The unemployment benefits system is one of the most important labour market institutions, smoothing the decline in consumption due to job loss and providing the unemployed with time for job search. However, the size of payments and their duration can also have a number of serious negative consequences for the labour market associated with the moral hazard and the quality of matching between workers and jobs. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the institutional features of unemployment benefits system in OECD countries, as well as the key directions of their influence on the labour market outcomes, which have compared with the main characteristics of the Russian system of support for the unemployed. Unemployment benefits system is among those labour market institutions that have particularly large cross-country differences. These differences have made up of three main components: the replacement rate, the duration of payment, and the assignment criteria. These characteristics determine the differences in the impact of benefits on the labour market, primarily on employment rate, the number of the unemployed, the duration of unemployment state, as well as on the job search process. Effective policy measures supporting the unemployed are impossible without taking into account the whole range of consequence, which include both positive and negative effects on employment rates, productivity and wages. Measures aimed at curbing the costs of the unemployment insurance fund, toughening the assignment criteria, establishing a closer connection between unemployment benefit receiver status, and the activity of searching for a new job should contribute to increasing efficiency of this labour market institution. However, changes in the unemployment benefits system cannot solve all the problems of the labour market. Short period of job search and strict criteria for granting benefits will make the need for reforms in the demand side of labour market – the quality of jobs as well as their number – increasingly important.
The paper examines dynamics in demand and supply of skilled labor in the russian economy over the transition period of 1990–2000-s. It shows that despite a huge inflow of workers with tertiary education demand for such workers grew in the russian labor market even faster. This explains why unemployment for workers with high educational attainment remained low; why returns to education continued to be high; why a proportion of college graduates who occupied low-skilled jobs decreased rather than increased. However in the next decades a relationship between demand and supply might radically change so that the russian economy could face with massive oversupply of highly educated workforce.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.