Мировые тенденции развития платежных систем
In the article key global trends and shifts of recent development in large value payment systems and retail payment systems since the middle of 1980-s are analyzed. The paper shows growth of hybrid payment systems, expansion of multicurrency payment systems, increase in electronic payments, and decline in the use of traditional payment instruments.
The paper considers the key types of up-to-date interbank payment systems. Their main structural features, operational pro and con, operational risks are analyzed. A special attention is paid to the factors prompting a rapid development of RTGS used for large and urgent money transfers. Different forms of further upgrading business process in payment infrastructure based on the modern technology are shown.
Mobile banking is one of the most dynamic developing types of distance banking services. For the recent years in Russia, the amount of individual bank accounts with the ability of the distance access through mobile devices increased more than by 20 times. Every year more and more banks start to offer mobile banking services. Despite this, the popularity of mobile banking applications is lower than the popularity of other banking services. Thus the problem of mobile banking adoption by customers is still an extremely important problem.
The authors analyzed foreign surveys devoted to the exploration of the incentives to mobile banking usage. The model developed by the authors is based on the well-known theoretical and empirical approaches and taken into account Russian peculiarity. As a theoretical basis, the most widespread theories describing technology acceptance and innovation diffusion were used. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) approach, the authors verified key incentives to use mobile banking by mobile Internet users i.a. perceived usefulness and perceived efforts.
These results are in accordance with most foreign surveys in this subject area. The findings also will be helpful for banks as they allow these financial institutions to highlight the cutting edge of mobile banking in Russia.
Recent changes in world payment infrastructure affect the area of retail payments. This article considers frontiers and specific features of small money transfers, as well as major payment instruments and operational structures, which are functioning now in world developed countries. Special attention is paid to innovations in retail payments, their forms and scope of usage.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.