Эволюция правового регулирования эксплуатации беспилотных автомобилей в Российской Федерации
Purpose. The article will analyze the Russian legislation about the operation of self-driving cars, as well as the prospects for its development. The main theoretical and practical difficulties of legal regulation of the operation of self-driving cars on public roads will be identified. Also the ways to overcome them will be proposed. Attention will also be paid to the ethical, and socio-economic consequences of the widespread introduction of self-driving cars.
Methods. The materials for the study were the current legislation and draft regulatory legal acts prepared by Russian federal executive authorities. This study is based on the method of legal forecasting and contributes to the public discussion of these initiatives.
Results. Based on the positive results of the first phase of the legal experiment on the operation of self-driving cars on public roads in 2019–2021, it is advisable to move to the second phase of the experiment, in which the movement of self-driving cars with their remote routing and dispatching will be tested. Based on the results of the second phase, scheduled for 2022–2024, it will be possible to draw conclusions about the need to adjust federal legislation. Conducting a legal experiment does not generate significant contradictions with the international obligations of the Russian Federation arising from participation in the Vienna Convention on Road Safety. The issues of civil and administrative liability for damage caused during the operation of self-driving cars can generally be considered settled.
Discussion. The issues of criminal liability for harm to life and health caused by self-driving cars require additional discussion, since their owners – legal entities – cannot be subjects of criminal liability. It is also necessary to develop an optimal legal model for the protection of personal data accumulated and processed by self-driving cars during their operation.