Трансформация культуры и изменения в моделях потребительского поведения
The paper analyzes the main trends of consumer markets in the post-crisis period. Particular attention is paid to the manifestation of global trends in Russia. The increasing value systems and lifestyle fragmentation leads to changes in even such fundamental elements of the human society as gender differentiation and models of family life. The growth of popularity of the economical consumption model is accompanied by a drop in loyalty to brands, as well as by increasing popularity of downshifting and minimalism. In these circumstances, those productsthat are able to take immediately into account several consumption trends and offer complete solutions have the best commercial prospects.
In this study, the authors pinpoint the similarities and differences between students at a Russian university and a Swedish university regarding the students’ value systems. What similarities and what differences are there between male Swedish students and male Russian students, and what similarities and what differences are there between the female students in the two countries? The authors’ interest was directed towards the gender differences between the two countries. A method employing three phases was developed for analyses of the value systems in the two countries. Students, who, as a category, often challenge existing value systems, were chosen as informants. Student samples from each country, varying in number from 63 to 100 informants, provided data in the three sub-studies. The results indicated that similar national concepts, when translated into English, exposed significant differences in their connotations, a phenomenon which is discussed in relation to implications for intercultural communication. In particular, the concepts of democracy and gender equality are highlighted. Differences and similarities related to gender and nationality constitute the bulk of the discussion. A major finding was that concepts describing close interpersonal relations, such as friendship and love, were cross-nationally rated higher than values more distant from the individual’s private world, such as democracy and equal rights.
Philosophy and education of values. Features of the Western system of values.
The paper is concerned with questions of civic values and civic identity as they are experienced by Russian people in the context of global economic crisis 2008-2010. Empirical findings from Russian Public Opinion Research Center, Levada-Center, Edelman Trust Barometer surveys are used to outline how tensions, distrust and civic irresponsibility expressed by respondents in the context of financial instability may amplify understandings of “citizenship” and “civic identity”. Several trends characterizing the impact of economic crisis on civic identity in Russian society are discussed: the transformation of the common sense of “we-ness” in case of individualism’s growth and increasing reduction of trust to economic and law institutions; the problem of new political values formation; the specifics of citizens’ emigration intentions; the “status level” of citizenship; the effect of mental inertia.
In the article on the basis of the psycholinguistic experimental data obtained in 2009-2010 from Russian and Swedish students (the project on Swedish Institute grant) we consider internal features of several complex values (“Harmony”, “Freedom”, “Democracy”, “Tolerance” and “Patriotism”) and analyze their external systemic organization, taking into account both specificity of the two cultures and gender specifics. We argue that value concepts are hierarchically organized, forming different generalization levels from the simple to the more complex ones with intricate overlapping among different complex values within the system.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.