Интеграция российских городов в глобальные экономические сети (2010–2020)
The article presents the network approach to the study of cities; in particular, it substantiates how cities are embedded in global economic networks through corporate networks of major multinational companies. The peculiarities of the integration of Russian cities into global economic networks are revealed, stressing the context of the evolution of inter- and intra-regional inequality over the period from the early 1990 s to 2020. The focus of this study is to analyze the effects of the 2014– 2016 economic crisis, caused in part by international economic sanctions, which in turn played an important role in the behavior of multinational companies in Russia and in assessing the attractiveness of the Russian market for further foreign investment.
The empirical part of the paper is done in a case study strategy and focuses on Kaluga, one of Russia's most successful cities in attracting foreign companies. Based on a series of interviews with representatives of foreign automotive cluster companies operating in Kaluga, the main factors of Kaluga's success in attracting foreign investment are identified, as well as opportunities and barriers for the activities of these companies. In particular, it has been determined that a favorable economic and geographic location and personal guarantees from the regional governor for business security are the most important and sufficient conditions for Kaluga's successful integration into global economic networks. It was also possible to determine that local social ties do not play a key role in obtaining economic aid from the state in times of crisis (referring to crises 2014–2016 and 2020-present).