Энергия электронов, испускаемых при разделении поверхностей
Experiments indicating acceleration of charged particles as a result of separation of solid surfaces are analyzed. As a possible mechanism of such acceleration, generation of surface charge on the separated surfaces of a cleaved ionic crystal is considered. The maximum electric field generated due to the charging of the separated surfaces and the energy of electrons accelerated in such a field are estimated. It is shown that, for the maximum attainable electric field, conditions are created for the generation of runaway electrons that, even at atmospheric pressure, electrons are accelerated to high energies, not experiencing collisions with gas particles.
A vocationally-oriented course on Physics with medico-biological direction is proposed in this book. The matters of application of physical methods for substances investigation are considered here in detail.
The book may ne helpful for students of medical and pharmaceutical institutes of higher education and colleges, chemical, biological and pharmaceutical faculties of universities, as well as for students of core classes and teachers of medico-biological specialties.
The fresh surfaces formation provided by materials destruction or cleavage often leads to surfaces charging and strong electric fields generation. These fields can create the high energy electrons beams and Bremsstrahlung radiation. For example the destruction of quartz and granite is accomplished by low intensity relativistic electron fluxes creation. However the adhesive tapes peeling is accomplished by significantly more intensive electron beams creation. These beams can provide hard irradiation of skin and other layers of biological tissues during the adhesive tapes separation. We will estimate this irradiation using the generalized diffusion model for non-relativistic electrons.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.