Demystifying Blockchain Technology for Resource-Constrained IoT Devices: Parameters, Challenges and Future Perspective
One of the most promising enablers for the secure distributed operation of the Internet of Things (IoT) systems could be based on a mathematical construct widely known as blockchain that aims to neglect the system’s centralization and scalability properties. This paper aims to map the requirements and features of both systems, highlight the main co-existence challenges and technological candidates for smoother integration of IoT and blockchain, as well as provide the standartization outlook. Moreover, an architectural approach to an integrated solution is identified based on classic literature review methodology aiming to consider the IoT versus blockchain characteristics mapping and outlining related challenges. Critical solutions to address the integration bottlenecks include moving from Proof-of-Work (PoW) to Distributed Proof-of-Stake (DPoS) consensus, adding a Fog overlay to the architecture model, and leveraging the synergies combining the benefits of blockchain and IoT technology are highlighted
This paper discusses data interchange formats in the context of heterogeneous networks for the Internet of Things (IoT). The wide dissemination of IoT technologies into various industries, such as agriculture and mining, reveals data transfer issues in geographically remote locations due to absence of any network infrastructure. Several technologies like LoraWAN and NB-IOT offer extended communication ranges, however they still cannot fully solve the problem. In many cases satellite networks are the only available option for transmitting IoT data to a central collection point. Our research of satellite networks showed that as of today the Iridium Short Burst Data (SBD) network is one of the best technologies suited for IoT applications. However, the SBD imposes a significant limit on the size of transmitted messages, which turns data format selection into a vitally important task. We developed a simulation model as well as a heterogeneous Iridium-LoRAWAN prototype to compare different data exchange formats. Our experiments showed more than 4 times increase in the amount of data transferred with Protocol Buffers, compared to the widely used JSON format.
This book constitutes the joint refereed proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Next Generation Teletraffic and Wired/Wireless Advanced Networks and Systems, NEW2AN 2020, and the 13th Conference on Internet of Things and Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2020. The conference was held virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The 79 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 225 submissions. The papers of NEW2AN address various aspects of next-generation data networks, with special attention to advanced wireless networking and applications. In particular, they deal with novel and innovative approaches to performance and efficiency analysis of 5G and beyond systems, employed game-theoretical formulations, advanced queuing theory, and stochastic geometry, while also covering the Internet of Things, cyber security, optics, signal processing, as well as business aspects. ruSMART 2020, provides a forum for academic and industrial researchers to discuss new ideas and trends in the emerging areas.
The article deals with the problems of ensuring functional, informational and cyber security for vehicles and transport infrastructure facilities. The analysis of the factors causing the growth of threats to the transport sector has been carried out, the list of typical cyber attacks on the components of the transport infrastructure is given. The results of the analysis of the features of automated process control systems of technological processes of vehicles and transport infrastructure facilities are presented. Recommendations on the development of transport security systems are given taking into account the specifics of various types of transport
The article analyzes the issues of legal regulation concerning liability for offences in the field of information technology (cybercrime). Author outlines the main issues of regulation in the field of information technology, examines current approaches of Russian lawyers and expressed her own proposals to resolve issues in the designated area.
The book contains selected papers that were presented on PhD Summer schools on Scientific Computing jointly organized by Waterford Institute of Technology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Saint-Petersburg State University and Nanjing University of Technology. The schoold were mainly organized in teleconference mode and linked researchers and PhD students from several countries.
Many security protocols rely on the assumptions on the physical properties in which its protocol sessions will be carried out. For instance, Distance Bounding Protocols take into account the round trip time of messages and the transmission velocity to infer an upper bound of the distance between two agents. We classify such security protocols as Cyber-Physical. Time plays a key role in design and analysis of many of these protocols. This paper investigates the foundational differences and the impacts on the analysis when using models with discrete time and models with dense time. We show that there are attacks that can be found by models using dense time, but not when using discrete time. We illustrate this with an attack that can be carried out on most Distance Bounding Protocols. In this attack, one exploits the execution delay of instructions during one clock cycle to convince a verifier that he is in a location different from his actual position. We additionally present a probabilistic analysis of this novel attack. As a formal model for representing and analyzing Cyber-Physical properties, we propose a Multiset Rewriting model with dense time suitable for specifying cyber-physical security protocols. We introduce Circle-Configurations and show that they can be used to symbolically solve the reachability problem for our model, and show that for the important class of balanced theories the reachability problem is PSPACE-complete. We also show how our model can be implemented using the computational rewriting tool Maude, the machinery that automatically searches for such attacks.
It is well-known that the Dolev-Yao adversary is a powerful adversary. Besides acting as the network, intercepting, sending, and composing messages, he can remember as much information as he needs. That is, his memory is unbounded.
We recently proposed a weaker Dolev-Yao like adversary, which also acts as the network, but whose memory is bounded. We showed that this Bounded Memory Dolev-Yao adversary, when given enough memory, can carry out many existing protocol anomalies. In particular, the known anomalies arise for bounded memory protocols, where there is only a bounded number of concurrent sessions and the honest participants of the protocol cannot remember an unbounded number of facts nor an unbounded number of nonces at a time. This led us to the question of whether it is possible to infer an upper-bound on the memory required by the Dolev-Yao adversary to carry out an anomaly from the memory restrictions of the bounded protocol. This paper answers this question negatively (Theorem 2).
The second contribution of this paper is the formalization of Progressing Collaborative Systems that may create fresh values, such as nonces. In this setting there is no unbounded adversary, although bounded memory adversaries may be present. We prove the NP-completeness of the reachability problem for Progressing Collaborative Systems that may create fresh values.
The suppression of the nonlinear distortions in amplifier using the effect of the envelope signal of the amplified HF oscillations on the amplifier parameters is analyzed. A slow (on the time scale of the HF oscillations) variation in the parameters gives rise to additional frequency components of oscillations that compensate for the nonlinear distortions of the original signal. Several variants to employ the compensating signal using the feedback circuits in the transistor amplifiers and variations in the electron-beam current in TWT in the absence of such circuits are considered. The suppression of the nonlinear intermodulation distortions (IMDs) of the test two_frequency signal is studied for the above variants and the suppression of the third_order IMD by 6–19 dB corresponds to the known experimental data on the microwave transistor amplifier. The generalization of the quasistationary method for the analysis of the nonlinear transformation of signals allows the analysis of the amplification and suppression of IMD for more complicated multifrequency signals that are used in radio systems.