South Korea trade during COVID-19 pandemic: perspectives on value chains and US-CHINA trade war
This paper analyzes South Korea’s foreign trade during the first half of 2020. The goal is to highlight an early effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the geographical and structural patterns of Korea’s export and import. This analysis is done in order to investigate whether there is a trend towards re-structuring of Korea’s value chains away from China. The need to diversify production links and increase cooperation with other countries in Asia was widely discussed in Korea during the pandemic as the country experienced a shortage of supplies and factory closure as a consequence of China’s lockdown. This research looks for early signs of transformation in terms of geography and composition of traded products and places those signs into the context of global and regional value chains and the US-China trade war. Given Korea’s strategic alliance with the US and economic importance of both the US and China for its export-driven economy, Korean companies have to make choices about how their value chains will look like in the near future.
The paper finds evidences that point into the direction of growing linkages between Korea and South-East Asian economies in the first half of 2020. But contrary to expectations, overall trade ties with China remain quite strong. It is likely that in the following years Korean businesses will follow a two-track approach: those that aim to sell to Chinese domestic consumers will keep their production in China while those companies that export from China to the US and EU will continue to diversify their manufacturing base in order to keep access to advanced markets.
The paper first presents an overview of historiographical political activity Honyen Park (1920-1953). Name a prominent patriot and revolutionary force in Park Honyen political affiliation divided Korea into oblivion. Park figure on the background of many famous fighters for the independence of Korea from Japanese domination worthy of attention because of its political activity is inextricably linked to the anti-Japanese struggle for the liberation of Korea. Member of the March First uprising Park Honyen one of the organizers and leaders of the Young Communist League of Korea, Secretary of the Communist Party of Korea. The main source base for writing this message served as documents of the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History (RGASPI) Foreign Policy Archives of the Russian Federation (AVP RF), publications of the Russian and foreign researchers of Korean history, memories of Honyen Park Korean Studies Professor F. Shabshinoy (in manuscript), completed in 1993, as well as archive daughter Park Honen - Viviane.In the Russian Korean studies, special study of the life and political career of the prominent figure of 1920 - 1950-ies Park Honyen not yet carried out. Objective presentation of historical facts will fill the "white spots" in the history of the Korean Peninsula, as well as understanding of the origins of the Soviet-Korean relations.
The changing situation in Korean peninsula arises the question as to whether US, China and Russia could jointly find the adequate answer to the critical issues on N.Korea At the same time all countries should remain in the framework of legality and act only by UN decision. Further testing of nuclear weapons by DPRK is likely to invoke stronger sanctions but the consequences there are uncertain. What is certain, however, is that the status quo cannot be maintained in the long term, as long as North Korea keeps developing nuclear weapons. We can see several paradoxes of the present situation. The first one is that DPRK being a country with very low level of economic development and zero-influence to the world economy was able to galvanize the global alignment of forces and behave as a very important «enfant terrible». In spite of the common threat even today after awesome statements from US and N. Korea’s sides to completely destroy each other and "peace with honor" attitude and real threat of war, it didn’t give birth of the obvious anti-N. Korean alliance with common views to the decision of this situation. The long-lasting situation in Korean peninsula today turned to be a global issue with many actors and vague prospects.
The collection includes reports and speeches of the participants of the International Symposium on the Korean diaspora living in China, Japan, Russia and the United States. Particular attention is paid to changes in these communities under the influence of external factors, region of residence, migration of Koreans from the Korean peninsula since the end of IXX - beginning. XX centuries. during the period of colonization by Japan in Korea. The texts are presented in the original language (Russian, Japanese, Chinese) and translated into Korean. In order to researchers, teachers, students, anyone interested in the issues of the Korean Peninsula states.
Invaluable role of Korean youth in the national liberation movement of Korea, in the fight against the Japanese colonization of the independence of the homeland. Analysis of activity of Korean youth organizations will allow to identify their role and place in the struggle for independence and its influence on the development of self-consciousness and national consciousness of the Korean youth. The article is devoted to the Korean youth movement in the 1920s. For the first time introduced into circulation new documents and materials from Russian archives, presents an analysis of the structure of various youth organizations, including the first Komsomol organizations in Korea, Manchuria, Japan and Russia. The main goals and objectives of youth organizations were directed not only to fight against the colonial domination of Japan, one of the main tasks of the Korean youth was educational activities directed at the elimination of Korean traditional values, the struggle for equality in society and in the family. Intuitively presented and ideological struggle between youth organizations, religious, socialist, communist and nationalist orientation, covers the activities of the Korean section of the Komsomol Communist Youth International (CIY). Sufficiently clear traced and ideological incompatibility not only in the youth movement, but also in general in the Korean independence movement.
Russia’s policy towards Northeast Asia cannot be understood independently of its general Asian strategy, primarily its pivot to Asia, which has practically become an official policy after 2014. We are witnessing two contradictory tendencies in Washington and Seoul. The Trump administration seeks to assume a tougher stance on North Korea. At the same time, South Korea’s new government is likely to be more moderate towards Pyongyang. At the same time Russian experts expressed considerable hope.
In the book for the first time the documents of the Archive of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire on Russian-Korean Relations (1820-1909), on the voluntary resettlement of Koreans in the Amur Region in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries are published. Also, the collection contains, previously published, documents and materials of the Russian State Historical Archives of the Far East (1864-1918). The reader is presented with a large amount of factual material that reveals the peculiarities of the migration policy of the Russian government in relation to the Koreans. The mechanism of building relations with migrants from Korea, their arrangement in Primorye, the role and place of Koreans in the development of the Russian Far East, in school education, as well as the participation of the Orthodox Church in the process of naturalization of Koreans in Russian culture is shown. Of interest are materials about the participation of Koreans in the national liberation movement of Korea in the Russian Far East. The book is addressed to researchers and administrative staff, teachers and students of humanitarian faculties as a reference tool, as well as for a wide range of readers interested in the East.
This article analyzes the archival materials and documents Archives of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire about Korean migration to Russia and the Russian-Korean relations from 1864 to 1918. On the basis of a large factual material reveals the features of the migration policy of the Russian government applied to the the Koreans in the Far East. Shows the mechanism of building relations with migrants from Korea, their arrangement in Primorye, the role and place of the Koreans in the development of Russian Far East, in school education, and the participation of the Orthodox Church in the process of naturalization of Koreans in the Russian culture.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.